Carmel (1888-1961). American journalist. She was born in Dublin, Ireland, and moved as a young emigrant to the US where her mother opened a dressmaker’s. She started working for Vogue in 1921 where, thanks to her excellent ability to predict fashion, she soon rose to vertiginous heights. After 10 years she moved to Harper’s Bazaar, turning it into a magazine that seriously rivalled Vogue. Condé Nast, the owners of Vogue, and Edna Woolman Chase, editor-in-chief, considered her a traitor for the rest of her life. At the fashion shows in Paris and Florence (she was one of the first to appreciate the birth of Italian fashion), she seemed barely to follow the models on the runway; at times, it appeared that she had even fallen asleep. But this was only a guise because her intuition led her always to choose the best of every collection for the photographs. She commissioned Dalì and Chagall to illustrate Harper’s Bazaar and, with Alexey Brodovitch, the magazine’s artistic director, she was one of the main supporters of the photographic talent of Dahl-Wolfe, Horst, Munkacsi, Penn and Avedon.
Anthony (1964). English designer born in London. Before finishing his studies at Central St Martin’s School, he was already working with John Galliano and won the designer of the year award at Graduate Fashion Week. After graduating in 1994, he worked for Krizia, Moschino, English Eccentrics, and Vivienne Westwood, until he decided to create a women’s line bearing his own name in 1998. He begins each collection by studying the fabrics; and though the designs may seem relatively simple, their construction is complex and technologically advanced.
Austrian brand of ready-to-wear fashion. It was founded in Vienna in 1984 by two schoolfriends, Anita Aigner and Arnauld Hans. They took part in a collective fashion show in Paris and their clothes are sold in Belgium, Germany, France, and Austria.
Franco (1929-1987). Italian journalist and editor. Son of a Corriere della Sera manager, he too worked for the newspaper company and, having been marketing manager, was given the task of researching a weekly women’s magazine with an innovative feel. This saw the birth of Amica an avantgarde monthly magazine with Enrico Gramigna as editor and Flavio Lucchini as artistic director. In 1964 Sartori moved to Condé Nast Italia where, having taken over Novità, he founded Vogue Italia and remained its editor for the rest of his life. He also became managing director of Condé Nast Italia and helped expand with Casa Vogue, Uomo Vogue (begun in 1967 as a supplement of Vogue Italia), Vogue Sposa, Vogue Bambino, and Vogue Gioiello. He was a man of elegant looks; austere and inseparable from his Tuscan cigars, he inspired a certain awe and was blessed with an excellent eye for choosing journalists and collaborators for his magazines. Many of the best journalists specialized in fashion, beauty, and home decoration were trained at Condé Nast. Under his direction, the publishing house placed new emphasis on fashion images, photography, and graphics, creating a sophisticated and refined means of expression that would influence other publications in the field in the years to come. Others learnt from the Condé Nast look, with Vogue Italia and Uomo Vogue considered the bibles of luxury and the latest styles, something that was continually asserted by the talent of Italian designers. At the height of his success, and while still young, Sartori died in New York after a heart transplant. His associate manager was Attilio Fontanesi who contributed to the extraordinary advertising and financial success of the magazines, thinking up innovative advertising strategies, such as the famous groupage.
A term used to describe all elasticated fabrics. After appearing in the Paris collections in the 1960s, stretch fabric played an important role in the production of underwear and swimming costumes in the 1970s. The first fashion designer to use it and extol its virtues was the Tunisian Alaïa, who is famous for his sinuous lines and tight-fitting minidresses.
Italian griffe of prêt-à-porter. Created in the early 1980s and initially produced by CTS of Bologna, it is designed by Cristina herself. In 1995, she launched a second line, Queen & Queen, establishing during the same period a company called Papa Re which today produces both lines. It has been at Milano Collezioni for several seasons.
Vidal (1928). English hairdresser. His style of cutting and his mainly geometric hairstyles was, during the 1950s and 1960s, one of the springboards of the aesthetic revolution which accompanied the liberalization and change in fashion in the era of Swinging London, the Beatles and flower power. He opened salons and shops in Europe, Canada, the United States, and Singapore (a total of 10 in the mid-1990s) and created hair products. Passionate about his job, he founded a school of hairdressing in 1969 and an academy in 1973.
Adolfo (1933). American designer. Having escaped family pressure to become a lawyer, he was saved by following his aunt, Maria Lopez, from Cuba, where she comes from, to Paris. She presented him to the Maison Balenciaga where Adolfo got to know the world of fashion and tailoring. In 1948, he decided to leave Paris for New York, where he learnt the millinery trade. In 1962 he opened his first shop, accompanying his hats with a line of clothing. The garments were ready-to-wear, but could be adapted to fit and because of the quality of the cut and sewing were close to being haute couture. First Lady Nancy Reagan provided him with a spontaneous endorsement.
&Quad;2002, April. He took part in the Latin American fashion show organized at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York.
Italian ready-to-wear company founded by Walter Burani in 1960 in Reggio Emilia to produce and distribute outdoor clothes for little girls. Having achieved 1,000 sales points, the company launched a line for older girls, while investments allowed them to modernize and expand their production plants. In the mid-1970s the business expanded to include women’s clothes. In 1988, it set up the company Mariella Burani, which has its own set of stores and works with licensing agencies. In 1996 Selene USA was created. The Italian company currently has more than 40 own brand stores and franchised shops around the world, all designed by Antonio Citterio. 1998 closed with direct sales (excluding licenses) of 180 billion lire, an increase of 29% on the previous year. Exports accounted for 55% of the sales. Sub-licenses were granted through the Mariella Burani Fashion Group to 18 firms making knitwear, ties, cosmetics, leather goods, eyewear, and accessories. Selene has five of its own brands and produces the Carisma and Carisma Rouge lines for Valentino, under a licensing agreement that dates back to 1993. Since 1996, Selene is the exclusive distributor of Gai Mattiolo ready-to-wear and the Shockingai by Mattiolo line. In March 1999, it signed an agreement to produce the Calvin Klein Donna line starting in Spring-Summer 2000. The following November, the company bought 100% of Mila Schön Investment.
Julie (1960). Scandinavian designer who lives and works in Paris. She produced her first collection in 1991. At first she openly declared her attachment to her Scandinavian roots and cultural heritage, with a line that evoked northern forests, snow-covered landscapes, fairies, witches, and tales from the North. In the years that followed, her sources of inspiration have been more varied, as a result of her extensive travels throughout the world: geishas and oriental empresses in Summer 1995 gave way, in Fall-Winter of the same year, to the shiny waterproofs worn in the foggy ports of northern France. 1996 marked her encounter with Native Americans; then came the lights and colors of the desert inspired by a trip to Morocco and the Egyptian pyramids. Next she returned to Norway and launched a new material, Twool, in Paris. Her next collection was a homage to St Moritz and winter sports. A “rising” brand, her designs are now sold in small, elitist Paris shops such as Absinthe in Rue Rousseau, near Les Halles.
&Quad;1996. Le Musée de la Mode in Paris welcomed her as part of the Japonisme et Mode exhibition.
&Quad;1998, March. Some of her creations officially entered the permanent collection of the Musée de la Mode et du Textile in Paris.
&Quad;1999, April. She exhibited in Cologne at New Scandinavia: aktualles design aus dem Norden.
&Quad;2001, January. She showed in Jouer la lumière near the Musée de la Mode et du Textile in the Louvre.