Nessler Charles. German hairdresser who invented the permanent wave, which he advertised in 1906 in the Hairdresser’s Weekly Journal in London where he lived and worked. The advert described an artificial wave that outlasted washes. The system, based on ammonia, did not gain many converts. This did not change even after Nessler, who moved to Paris in 1909 (changing his name to the French Nestlé), perfected it with the use of rollers. It was not until the 1920s that the perm became popular.