From a technical point of view there are two types of lace: the kind made using a needle (a development of embroidery) and pillow lace (derived from passementerie). Lace was made completely by hand for three centuries until the first machinery appeared in Nottingham, England at the beginning of the 19th century, invented by John Heathcoat, and later by Leavers, who dreamed up the name “Calais lace.” Lace appeared on the textile scene relatively late, in the second half of the 16th century. To start with, the two centers for lace-making were Venice, for needlework lace, and Flanders for pillow lace. Before then, to achieve the transparent effect (in lace due to the delicate structure with tiny holes and spaces), a scallop-edged piece of linen was embroidered, then cut and the threads pulled. Then somebody had the brilliant idea of reversing the process: instead of destroying the fabric, they created a mesh to embroider over. Lace was also used by men until the 18th century for jabots and frilled cuffs that appeared from beneath their jackets. From the beginning of the 19th century it was used exclusively for women’s clothing, for dresses, jackets, veils, umbrellas, shawls, and to decorate underwear and accessories. The art of lace-making quickly spread from Venice and Flanders, first to France, and then to England, Spain, and Switzerland. It was probably imported to Asia and South America by missionaries. Some of the most famous types of needlework lace are those from Alenµon and Argentan in Normandy, and for pillow lace Chantilly, Valenciennes, and Burano or Venetian lace. The art of handmade lace is still taught in some specialized schools. Museums throughout the world have collections of antique lace. One of the most famous lacemakers is Riechers-Marescot in Calais, France, where lace is produced for the world’s greatest couturiers.