In the 1960s, it was very fashionable to wear a large fur scarf that was either straight or slightly shaped so that it curved around the back over evening dresses or elegant afternoon suits. Today the word has taken on a wider meaning to include a long cashmere or wool scarf that is wrapped around the shoulders.


SÖlve (1970). Norwegian photographer. He publishes in The Face, Harper’s Bazaar, Numéro, and Big and does campaigns for Ungaro, Bally, Patrick Cox, and Levi’s. His campaign image for Yves Saint Laurent’s M7 perfume showing a male nude was surprising in its evocation of the photograph taken in 1971 by Jean Loup Sieff for Saint Laurent’s first men’s fragrance.


Youth movement characterized by a high level of aggression: shaven heads, bomber jackets decorated with images of skullsand threatening writing, and big boots often reinforced with steel toe caps. The movement originated as a reaction to the middle-class hippy movement in England in the mid-1970s. Socially, its reference point is the working classes in industrial cities, but it took only a few years for the political extreme right in England to exploit thousands of young people whose only point of social and cultural reference is the skinhead movement. The phenomenon spread throughout Europe, including Eastern Europe. In Germany, skinheads have been completely taken over by the neo-Nazis. In other countries, Italy among them, odd groups of skinheads remain who refuse to associate with the far right and adhere instead to the original cultural and social references of the movement. In some cases, they adopt the stylistic urgency of the original movement, especially in music, which was that of a counter-culture and had nothing to do with the right, with, for example, black Jamaican music or English ska.


Edward (1879-1973). American photographer. We are indebted to him for early color fashion photographs and the first color photographic front cover (Vogue America, 1931). His family emigrated from Luxembourg to the States, where Edward studied art at the Milwaukee Art Students League and then moved to Paris in 1900. Alongside painting he starts practising photography. In 1902, he co-founded Alfred Stieglitz’s Photosecession movement in New York. During World War I, he was a navy and aviation photographer, which greatly influenced his photographic style. Having settled in New York, he gave up painting to concentrate on photography and, in 1923, became the first photographer for Condé Nast’s publications, particularly Vanity Fair and Vogue. His fashion photographs and portraits were the most expensive of the period. He worked a lot with Marion Morehouse, his favorite model. In 1947, he left Condé Nast to become director of the photographic department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.


Italian brand and firm that makes children’s clothes. In 1950, Maria Bianca Mazzarini Stronati decided to open a small dressmaking shop in Jesi catering to babies and small children. With the help of her three children, Roberto, Simonetta, and Valeria, the business grew and in 1981 became an industrial enterprise. Much attention is spent on researching materials and the details. Today, with the involvement of the third generation, Simonetta has become a leading firm in the field of high-quality baby clothes. The continued emphasis on new ideas and new technologies is the driving force behind the company’s success. It produces nearly 500,000 garments a year that are sold in boutiques and department stores in 27 countries. The main factory, in Jesi, has nearly 100 employees and an entourage of a further 200 people. As well as the first line, the firm has branched out with Simonetta jeans, Simonetta tiny, and Simonetta shoes, and is also licensed to produce Cavalli Angels, Cavalli Devils, and Cavalli Junior, designed by Roberto Cavalli.


Jean Louis (1936). French designer born in Lyons. His style is simple. His luxury ready-to-wear is known for its prized velvets, and overcoats with leather and suede finishes. His designs are inspired by the Orient and in the 1980s he produced Mongolian and Chinese style cloaks and coats. He chose fashion as an alternative to ballet, which he was forced to give up following an accident. Dior took him on a year before the master died, following which Scherrer worked with Dior’s successor, Yves Saint Laurent. After three years with Féraud, he created his own label in 1962. His talent scout was Julia Trissel, the buyer for Bergdof Goodman. His brand was relaunched in 1976 and four years later won the Dé d’Or, which brought a further decade of success. His journey has been one of highs and lows as a result of the continual changes in ownership of the company of which he is director. In 1992, he had to hand it over to the Japanese group Seibu who entrusted the brand, first to Erik Mortensen, then to Bernard Perrys. In 1997, the house was bought by the French company EK Finance, which choses Stéphane Rolland as its designer.
&Quad;2002. Mouffarige and Franµois Barthes founded the France Luxury Group that bought Scherrer, along with other labels.
&Quad;2002. Stéphane Rolland launched a menswear line and focused on the haute couture side of the business.
&Quad;2002. Ritu Beri was chosen by the France Luxury Group to design ready-to-wear for Scherrer.
&Quad;2003. Ritu Beri left the group.


(de) Elisabeth (1946). French designer. Her strength is her ability to move seamlessly from one experience to the next, from a commercial career to a creative one. From being the director in 1964 of the Parisian Miss Dior boutique, in the 1980s she began printing ancient works of art on her clothes inspired by the reworkings of the masters of pop art such as Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol. Having designed for various firms, sometimes putting her name to collections and sometimes not, she set up on her own in 1975. Her innovations include hyper-geometric cuts, bright colors, and the use of Velcro to replace buttons during her Chinese-inspired period. She also produces ranges of clothing for babies and children.
&Quad;1999. She opened a boutique in Rue d’Assas and used bright fabrics and optic fibers.
&Quad;2000. Her line for the home was launched in microtransparent neoprene. The designer turned her attention to anti-magnetic materials.
&Quad;2001. Senneville introduced anti-pollutants and products made from active carbon for clothes to be used about the house, swimming costumes, and women’s dresses.


Arnold (1931). Canadian designer. His clothes are haute couture, with elegant, low-cut necks and sometimes decorated with feathers or fur. His real name is Arnold Isaacs, but since he was young he has preferred to spell his surname backwards. Having studied in Montreal, he moved to Paris where he completed his studies at the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture. He then went to New York where he worked for Charles James from 1951 to 1953, learning various tailoring techniques. In 1957 he opened his own ready-to-wear fashion house in a townhouse in New York but, from 1963, he began to focus exclusively on haute couture. His most famous clients have been Barbra Streisand, Claudette Colbert, Elizabeth Taylor, Margot Fonteyn, Aretha Franklin and former First Lady Barbara Bush.

Straw hat

A round hat with a hard flat crown and a stiff brim, banded by a broad ribbon. Straw hats, along with fedoras and other men’s dress styles, came prominently into fashion in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and were one of the hat styles most favored by Gabriele D’Annunzio, as seen in many photographs. They also became a show business staple, adopted with flair by Maurice Chevalier, Odoardo Spadaro and Nino Taranto. Straw hats became the symbol of the “interventionists”, who demonstrated in favor of Italy’s intervention in World War I. Also known as a “boater” because it was part of the summer rowing uniform, along with a striped blazer and flannel trousers. In Lombardy it is called a “magiostrina”.