Alberto (1931). Italian photographer. In 1960 he moved to the United States, first to California and later to New York where he began to work with Harper’s Bazaar. From that time on, he published in Newsweek, Uomo Vogue, Mademoiselle, Domus and for the French, Italian, and American editions of Vogue. His dynamic style, profoundly influenced by the technique of collage, and by the powerful colors and the Op Art of the 1960s, characterized his work, both in his original still-lifes and in his fashion layouts. He worked for Bulgari, Chanel, Seiko, Saks Fifth Avenue, Bloomingdale’s, Max Factor, and Danskin. He showed his work in many exhibits, at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and at the Venice Biennale in 1981.


Milanese custom shoemaker. It was active from the 1940s to and throughout the 1960s. It was considered one of the finest shoemakers in Milan, along with Panicola. It had a display window in the Via Verri. It used the finest leather, German hides tanned with aniline, Russian leather tanned with chromium. There was a very long waiting list for a pair of shoes. The shop, with its eighteenth-century chairs, its awnings, its glass and mirrors, looked like something out of the first act of Der Rosen Kavalier. Greeting the customers was Rivolta’s wife, a tiny, elderly, elegant, and ceremonious old lady. She would invite a customer to sit down and, unfailingly, with just a hint of a smile, she would whisper: “Signor Rivolta will be here directly.” Then, through a glass door, a theatrical entrance made flesh, a living coup-de-théÀtre, he would arrive, small, smiling, fast-moving, with tousled white hair. He wore a white smock, clean and ironed. He wore a dark-blue lavallière bow tie with white polka dots. Physically he was somewhere between Arturo Toscanini and Charlie Chaplin’s Calvero, from Limelight. Rivolta’s last produced shoes that gave every man’s foot, even small, fat feet, an unrivaled slenderness.

Royal College of Art

London. The fashion and fabrics section of this prestigious nineteenth-century academy of art dates back to the years immediately following World War II, the period of Dior’s New Look which was indirectly responsible for its foundation. The idea of a professional school of fashion was introduced by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in order to contend with the reborn supremacy of Parisian fashion following the war. This led to the project of a school where the professionals of the present day could help to train the professionals of tomorrow. The executive committee included two industrialists, two fashion designers, and a journalist. The then editor-in-chief of Vogue England, Madge Garland, was summoned to supervise the course. At first looked upon by the industry with a degree of suspicion, good working relations were later developed that continue to the present day. Since 1969, the two-year course has been accredited as a universitary Master’s degree. Enrollment is possible with a high-school diploma in fashion or fabrics. It is recognized as one of the best specialization schools in the world.


It’s the oldest gunshop in Italy. It was founded in Milan in 1871. Over the course of the years, it also became a full-fledged temple to sporting elegance with a complete assortment of products: from original loden coats and jackets made of hand-woven Austrian linen to the most up-to-date American jogging shoes. For the past ten years or so, there has been a apparel-making workshop in the shop at Via Hoepli 3, where, in three weeks, it can cut, assemble, and stitch an entire wardrobe for man and woman.


Trademark of a manufacturer of athletic shoes. In 1895, the English athlete Joseph William Foster conceived and began to produce a type of shoe with a hobnailed sole for faster running. In 1958, two of his grandchildren founded a second corporation which absorbed the J.W. Foster & Sons company, with the name Reebok, from the name of an African gazelle. In 1979, the company took a new direction through the efforts of Paul Fireman, a partner in a company that distributed outdoor sporting products: the launch of the Freestyle, the first aerobics shoe designed expressly for dance. Its success took the company to the forefront of the international athletic shoe market. In 1984, Fireman purchased the company from Joseph Foster and transformed it into a corporation. In 1998, Reebok launched The Pump, a shoe that automatically pumped itself up to fit the foot. Reebok was engaged in an intense activity of sponsorship and research in the areas of running, fitness, rugby, tennis, soccer, baseball, track and field, golf, and mountain climbing.
&Quad;1999. In the field of sports apparel, the company introduced Hydromove, an exclusive technology based on thermoregulation and comfort. This innovative structure allows body heat to push sweat toward the outside of the fabric for faster evaporation. The athlete, therefore, remains dry and the body preserves a constant temperature, which slows the onset of exhaustion and helps to improve performance.
&Quad;2000, December. The company signed a multiyear contract with Venus Williams, the famous tennis champion. In the same period, Reebok and the National Football League (NFL) announce a exclusive partnership that also serves the purpose of reorganizing and reinvigorating the business of NFL products. The ten-year contract calls for the NFL to hand over all production, distribution, and sales of the trademark for the 32 league football tems in the United States and for those in the World League (Europe). The license includes shoes, team uniforms, training apparel, aftergame wear, and a new line of apparel. The agreement ensures Reebok of exclusive rights to develop a new line of NFL-branded fitness equipment.
&Quad;2001, April. The company launched in North America, in collaboration with Clearly Canadian Beverage Corporation, Reebok Fitness Water, an extremely sophisticated product: this is water enriched with essential vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes. Reebok Fitness Water satisfies the demands of sports consumers, who are attentive to and aware of health.
&Quad;2001, August. The company signed another major ten-year contract for a strategic partnership with the NBA, the National Basketball Association. Thanks to this agreement, Reebok acquired the rights to design, produce, and distribute all merchandise tied to the NBA, the Women’s Basketball Association, and the National Basketball Development League.
&Quad;2002. Paul Smith designs a pair of running shoes for Reebok — in a limited edition, at a 145 Euro retail price — with a vaguely 1980s look. The company has revenues of 3.1 billion dollars.
&Quad;2003, June. A new entry in the phenomenon of fashion and rap: this is a long-term partnership between Reebok and 50 Cent, the rapper who is leading the ranking of biggest-selling music star on earth. The first fruit of their collaboration was the line of shoes called G-Unit Collection by RBK. This collection of shoes debuted, with a very limited distribution, in the fall, but the full-bore launch, in grand style, would take place in the first few months of 2004. This was not the first time that Reebok collaborated with a rap star: in fact, the brand launched, on 18 April 2003, the S Carter Collection by RBK, the product of a collaborative design process with the rapper Jay-Z, and it enjoyed enormous success in the United States. In a single weekend, in fact, 10,000 pairs of the first running shoes marketed were sold: the Shaun Carter, which cost 95 dollars.
&Quad;2003, September. The new collection devoted to women’s tenniswear was developed by the American fashion designer Diane von Fürstenberg.
&Quad;2003. Reebok International Ltd. had approximately 6,000 employees worldwide.
&Quad;2005 August. For 3.1 billion Euros, the company is published by the Germany group, Adidas, which paid 34 percent more than the price as quoted on the stock exchange.” (Edoardo Ponzoni)

Rena Lange

German high fashion and prêt-à-porter firm. It was established in 1963 by Peter Gunthert (1936), who began with a swimwear shop, a traditional item in the marketing continuum of the city of Munich. Six years later, after marrying Renate, a fashion designer who began her career in Berlin before becoming an apprentice cutter in Frankfurt, and who later became the label’s fashion designer. Now the Munich-based fashion house has 120 employees, 18 boutiques around the world, and exports to 26 countries.
&Quad;2003. She presented for the Spring-Summer 2003 season sensual outfits and suits with sharp lines and cuts. Stretch piqués, brightly colored bouclés, embroidered suede and silk georgette, all worked with innovative techniques, were offered in an extraordinary mix, but it was especially linen, with all the hues of fresh fruit, that was the most extensively used material. The collection stood out for the lightness of the fabrics and for the broad array of colors: from white to beige and blossom, from fuchsia to black. Stern outfits were presented with exclusive fabrics but also with humorous details: hearts, the fashion designer’s logo, lightened in a humorous way the pinstriped suit. The distinctive and delicate floral designs were reinterpreted with lace, embroideries and jacquards.


An Italian leather goods manufacturer, founded in Florence by Romualdo Dori. Established in the 1950s, at first it produced bags that copied Dutch wicker baskets. It became a typical feature of the company to produce bags with special interweavings in the handles and straps as well. Today, the company’s production includes shoes and belts.
&Quad;2002, November. AOI, the most important distributor in the fashion sector in Japan, acquired the exclusive rights to import Rodo and manage the concessions.
&Quad;2003, April. The company, by this point identified with high-end women’s footwear, suffered from the declines felt in the leather goods and shoe sectors and identified by the trade associations of the sector. But the company was confident and decided to target the Middle East, where in Riyad and Dubai it planned to open franchising stores. The leading markets for the company remained, in any case, the U.S., Italy, and Japan. Rodo, which had 6 single-label shops worldwide and 12 corner shops in department store, in 2002 had turnover of 8.2 million Euros.


Rigid pleated or creased collar. Invented in Italy in the 16th century and made popular by Caterina de’ Medici. It then reached exaggerated dimensions to the point of becoming a real wheel around the neck.


Mame Rimmel
An advertisement for Rimmel’s Toilet Vinegar (1851).

Founded in 1834 as a perfumery in the heart of London, the House of Rimmel went on to be one of the first commercial cosmetics company of the world. It won accolades from not just the London aristocrats but also the European Royalty. Queen Victoria being the most famous and loyal customer of the House.


 The Origin

Brand Development

About Coty Inc.


Famous Rimmel Collaborations

Rimmel Ethical Philosophy

Current Situation

Mame Rimmel
Eugene Rimmel 1820-1887, founder of ‘House of Rimmel’.

The Origin

 The foundation of the British cosmetics empire was laid by Hyacinthe Mars Rimmel, later joined by his son, Eugene. Hycinthe was a highly celebrated French perfumer, trained under the legendary Pierre-Francois Lubin, the personal “nose” to the Empress Josephine.  There’s no doubt that Hyacinthe was a bit of a maestro of fragrance, but the Rimmel that we know today, doesn’t owe its huge success solely to him.  It was his young son, Eugene, then just 14, who turned out to be the real genius, and even more of a perfume pioneer than his father. Eugene was not only a natural when it came to fragrance, he was a determined and innovative entrepreneur.  After just a few years under his father’s wing, he opened his own business. This bold move launched him internationally and helped build his reputation for being a creator of unique beauty products and fine fragrance.

The House of Rimmel was founded by Eugene Rimmel as a perfumery in 1834 in Regent Street, London, England. Eugene Rimmel was a French-born British perfumer and businessman born in 1820 who was responsible for manufacturing and marketing some of the earliest commercially made cosmetics.

Rimmel moved to London from France with his family when his father accepted the offer of managing a perfumery on Bond Street. Rimmel worked as an apprentice to his father and honed his skill as a perfumer.  By the age of 24, Eugene was an expert perfumer, as well as something of a cosmetics guru, and opened up his own flagship store in Regent Street.

The young Rimmel was unstoppable, chalking up a hefty list of beauty breakthroughs, before he had even turned 30. From the introduction of mail order catalogues, a brand-new idea in the world of perfume and cosmetics, to scented fans for ladies to use at the opera, theatre and ballet and perfumed Valentine’s cards, his most remarkable and recognized piece of work was a fragrance fountain created for the Great Exhibition in 1851. Perfumed jets of eau de cologne were dispensed by the

fountain which could be used to scent the handkerchiefs of delighted visitors. Even by today’s standards, this was a fairly audacious publicity stunt and it certainly didn’t fail. His fragrance fountain brought him to the attention of Queen Victoria who not only became Rimmel’s patron, but she appointed him her official Royal perfumer, an accolade that spread his name and fame across the globe. In his lifetime, he collected 10 Royal Warrants, not just from Victoria, but from heads of state throughout Europe.

A true pioneer, Rimmel wasn’t content with formulating and marketing his perfumes and beautifiers.  He was also passionate about becoming the “King of cosmetics and fragrance” to such a degree that he wrote and published a Book of Perfumes, one of the first “modern” beauty bibles to document the allure of fragrance and the etiquette of beauty. He didn’t stop at one publication, following his first book with Rimmel’s Perfumed Almanac, Recollections of the Paris Exhibition of 1867, and a Victorian best-seller, Scented Valentines.

What really earned Eugene Rimmel his place in beauty history was his 1860 cosmetic creation ‘Superfin’, the first commercial non-toxic mascara.  Whilst women had been using various potions and pomades to darken their lashes for centuries, Rimmel’s blend of coal dust and petroleum jelly was revolutionary. Although quite messy and unstable, its popularity spread like wildfire throughout Europe. The word “rimmel” or “rimel” became synonymous with mascara and still means mascara in several languages, proof of Rimmel’s far-reaching influence on the world of cosmetics.

Mame Rimmel
Some of the first Rimmel products.

Brand Development

The House of Rimmel continued to work on mascara innovation, tweaking and improving Superfin and eventually launched its Water Cosmetique. Surprisingly, this product didn’t start out as a product for ladies’ lashes. Rimmel’s original Cosmetique was created much earlier as a moustache colourant and was a mixture of soap and pigment in solid stick form which was mixed with water, and applied with a brush to moustaches and beards to cover greys and add colour. It was also popular amongst theatre character actors of the day. Eventually, the formulation was adapted and in 1917 launched as one of the first block mascaras intended for use solely on the eyelashes and brows. Around the same time, New York Chemist T.L. Williams (founder of Maybelline) also launched a block mascara called ‘Lash Brow-Ine’.

Eugene Rimmel continued to extend his reach and expand his empire, opening stores in both Paris and New York, and a flower garden and essential oil distillery in Nice. He was one of the first pioneers of aromatherapy, discovering the oils extracted from plants and flowers has therapeutic properties.  Rimmel created vaporisers which were used in hospitals to disperse beneficial oil vapours into the air, in the same way that we use aromatherapy diffusers today. He also pioneered the use of the first mouth washes as well as “Toilet Vinegars”.  These unattractively named fragrances were one step up from Eau de Colognes and were sold as personal disinfectants and refreshing between-bath time fresheners.  Probably early forms of deodorant!

In 1875, the original House of Rimmel building on Strand Street was destroyed by a fire but Eugene’s enthusiasm and passion wasn’t dampened.  He rebuilt his perfumery on the site that is now the location of one of London’s most historic and glamorous hotels, The Savoy.

He continued to reign at The House of Rimmel, until his death at the age of 67 on the 15th March 1887 where his obituary in the New York Times described him as “The Prince of Perfumers”. The company continued to be owned and run by the Rimmel family until 1949 when it was bought by a London company and later sold to Coty in 1996.

About Coty Inc.

 Coty Inc. is an American beauty products manufacturer with operations in over 150 countries. Based in New York, the company was founded in Paris, France by François Coty in 1904. It produces fragrances, colour cosmetics, skin and body care products. It is known for its cooperation with designers and celebrities for the creation of fragrances. Its biggest brands are CoverGirl, Max Factor, Rimmel, Sally Hansen, Adidas, Calvin Klein, Hugo Boss, Gucci, Burberry and Wella Professionals, as well as Chloe (fragrance), Davidoff (fragrance), Marc Jacobs (fragrance), Philosophy (beauty), Playboy (fragrance) and OPI Products (beauty).

On July 9, 2015, Coty announced it had reached a definitive agreement to purchase some of Procter & Gamble’s beauty brands for $12.5 billion in a deal that would more than double its sales and transform it into one of the world’s largest cosmetics companies.


 In the 2016 fiscal year, Coty Inc. generated approximately 4.35 billion U.S. dollars in net revenue, increasing to approximately 7.65 billion U.S. dollars the following year. The statistics provided were of “Combined Company”, referring to Coty and P&G Beauty Business together.

Mame Rimmel
Rimmel collaboration with Kate Moss 2016.
Mame Rimmel
Cara Delevingne for Rimmel London.

Famous Rimmel Collaborations

Rimmel London announced in 2013 that it will collaborate with British singer Rita Ora for a limited-edition make-up collection that was launched in February of 2014. The range included lip and nail products. “Rita is a real London girl and uses the streets of London as inspiration for her songs, like Rimmel uses the London Look from the streets as inspiration for its products,” said Rimmel’s vice president of global marketing, Friedemann Schmid. “With this new collection we are combining both the London street vibe with Rita’s amazing style.”

Georgia May-Jagger collaborated with Rimmel London for its new Wonder’Full Mascara campaign in July 2014. Wonder’full, the first-ever Rimmel mascara with Moroccan Argan Oil, marketed as a secret weapon to perfectly full, smooth, zero-clump volume.

Rimmel London announced Cara Delevingne as the of the beauty brand in April 2016. The British model-actress will act as an ambassador and will appear in the advertising campaign, according to Johanna Businelli, Coty’s chief marketing officer of colour cosmetics. Delevingne’s first campaign appeared later this year.

English model Kate Moss has long been associated with Rimmel London. And to celebrated 15 years of Rimmel and Kate Moss, in 2016 the beauty brand came up with new lipstick shades. The collection includes six of Kate’s favourite reds and nudes that she’s helped release in the past. Inspired by Kate’s most iconic looks over the years, the array of cult reds and nudes highlight the different facets of her fashion personality from red carpet idol to boho goddess.

Rimmel Ethical Philosophy

Rimmel London on its official website states that it does not perform or commission any third party to its behalf to perform testing of its products or ingredients on animals, except when required by law.

It is common knowledge that China requires mandatory animal tests on all cosmetic products imported into the country. The brand continues to be involved in dialogue with the Chinese authorities, including through active membership of the China Association of Fragrance Flavour and Cosmetic Industries (CAFFCI), to replace animal tests with alternatives.

The brand has also been actively involved in the research and development of alternatives to animal testing for many years. Rimmel was part of SEURAT-1, the single largest Private-Public Partnership initiative which aimed to develop alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic products. With a total contribution of €50 million, funded in equal by the European Commission and the cosmetics industry, it managed to produce some alternative methods to animal testing and set the ground for further development of which it still is a part.

The common goal of all these efforts is to completely replace animal testing through validated alternative methods to ensure consumer safety.

Mame Rimmel
Coty Inc. CEO Camillo Pane with Maye Musk.

Current Situation

Rimmel is owned by Coty Inc. whose Chief Executive Officer is Camillo Pane since July 2015. In this role, he is responsible for developing and leading Coty’s strategic vision, its focus on accelerating revenue growth, and its path towards achieving its mission of being a challenger and a leader in beauty. A native Italian, Camillo graduated from the University of Bocconi in Milan with a degree in business administration. He is based in London.

Coty in April 2018 announced that Esra Erkal-Paler, currently Global Head of External Communications at AstraZeneca, has been appointed Chief Global Corporate Affairs Officer and a member of the Executive Committee, a newly created position. Esra will lead Coty’s global internal and external communications strategies and responsible growth, reporting to Chief Executive Officer, Camillo Pane.

Rimmel’s company motto is “Live the London Look”.



Brand of eyeglasses developed out of a patent for a type of sunglasses, symbolic of the heroes of the Second World War because they were worn by General Douglas MacArthur, the supreme commander of Allied forces in the Pacific during the Second World War. From the years following WWII to the present day, they have become a sort of status symbol of Americanism in fashion and in aesthetics. Time magazine included them in a collection of icons of Americanism: Coca-Cola, Harley Davidson, and Heinz Tomato Ketchup. The patent was taken out on 7 May 1937 by the Bausch & Lomb company, an American optical products manufacturer that was founded in 1853 and has since become a worldwide colossus. The prototype, known as Anti-Glare, consisted of an extremely light frame — 150 grams — made of gold-plated metal with two green lenses made of mineral glass to filter out infrared and ultraviolet rays, was renamed Ray-Ban, for marketing reasons. The name came from the phrase Banish Rays. The story of Ray-Bans, however, began at the turn of the twentieth century with a request from a solitary long-distance balloon adventurer. In 1920, lieutenant John MacCready had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and his eyes had been damaged by the sunlight because he had no suitable eye protection. Once he had finished the crossing, he contacted Bausch & Lomb to ask them to manufacture a highly protective pair of eyeglasses, both panoramic and elegant. This led to the prototype made in 1937. It was immediately adopted by the pilots of the Army Air Force and Bausch & Lomb became the army’s sole supplier. When General MacArthur, Ray-Bans on his nose, landed in the Philippines, surrounded by photographers with flashbulvs and movie cameras, those sunglasses became mythical and it was to pay a debt of gratitude that in the 1950s, a model of sunglasses was dedicated to the general. After authentic heroes, it was the turn of movie heroes to become the more-or-less involuntary spokesmen for Ray-Ban: Marlon Brando and James Dean, Jack Nicholson in Easy Rider, John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd in Blues Brothers, Tom Cruise in Top Gun. Among the best known models are the Large Metals, the Wayfarers, the Shooters, and the Outdoorsman, the Baloramas, and the Olympias. Of the Large Metal Aviator glasses, there are 6 million sold worldwide every year. At the end of April 1999, the Ray-Bans, along with other brands in the sunglasses division of Bausch & Lomb, were purchased by the Italian company Luxottica, owned by Leonardo Del Vecchio, for about 1.2 billion dollars. The entire acquisition amounted to annual revenue of about 830 billion liras.
&Quad;2003, June. The sunglasses worn by Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore and Lucy Liu, the stars of the second film in the Charlie’s Angels series were created specially by Ray-Ban. For the movie, the designers created three different models, one per “angel.” Ray-Ban introduced five new models for the historic collection of eyeglasses, which were added to already crowded array of 43 models. The first Junior collection of sunglasses debuted: their marketing claim was “My First Ray-Ban.” Lorenzo Scaccini, a Milanese photographer who “specialized” in children’s products — he also did the pictures for the campagns of Versace Young, Chicco, Pampers, Mister Baby, and Sony Playstation — was responsible for the image and opted for Saint-Tropez as a background.