Marina (1951). Journalist and editor of Donna. She was born in Gallarate, near Varese. She began her career in 1972 while still quite young, as a coordinator and assistant for the Fashion Committee of Clothing Entrepreneurs in Milan. Immediately, the following year, she was discovered by Condé Nast and hired as an editor at Vogue Italy, a position very much sought after by all young reporters, in a place where all the women journalists were known for being particularly attractive, elegant, blonde, and beautiful. She remained at Condé Nast until 1978 when she was hired to do special features at Linea Italiana (Mondadori), where she would stay until 1983. She is one of the few journalists who has had an interesting professional path, both in specialized magazines and in television, where she hosted a fashion program, Pianeta Moda (Planet Fashion) on Telemontecarlo. From 1983 to ’88 she worked at RAI as an anchorwoman and journalist on the TV program Moda (Fashion). From 1990 to ’95 she was a writer and fashion consultant for programs and special events broadcast by RAI 1. In the same period she was deputy editor of the magazine Moda, published by ERI-RAI. In 1995 she was hired by Vera Montanari, editor of Gioia, first as deputy editor for fashion and then as co-editor.
Istvan (1956). Serbian designer, born in Subotica, on the border with Hungary. He studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Belgrade and completed his education at the Parsons School of Design in New York. His career has included work in addition to fashion. For example, he has been the picture editor of books dedicated to Simone de Beauvoir and to the Paris of the 1930s and 1940s, and he has designed sets and costumes for the theater. His fame in the fashion world is especially linked to the Donna Karan brand, for which he worked from 1987 to early 2000 (men’s and women’s collection for the main line and the Signature Collection). For three seasons, starting with the Spring-Summer collection in 2001, he was chief designer and creative director of Maska Group. Since the Spring-Summer 2001 season he has designed a line under his own name produced by Fin.Part.
He is chosen to coordinate the team for Cerruti’s first lines in collaboration with Samantha Sung (formerly with Ralph Lauren) for women’s wear and Adrien Smith (formerly of Gucci and Ferré) for men’s wear.
He is back at Donna Karan, after a first experience that lasted 14 years.
He is appointed head director of DKNY men’s wear.
The term is the direct translation of the French word mode, which, according to scholars from that country, appeared for the first time in 1482 to indicate a specific type of clothing. Little more than 70 years later there were references to new fashions and to the following of fashion. In Italy (R.L. Pisetzky) the word arrived in the mid-seventeenth century, when “fleetingness, variability, and novelty” were already considered to be essential characteristics of fashion. In the sixteenth century, the word costume was used to indicate a way of dressing that was longer lasting, more uniform, and slow to change. Although the original practice of covering the body and defending and assuring one’s modesty was overtaken by the role of clothing as decoration, a sign of belonging, communication, and individual roles, the changing of garments, colors, and textiles became more complex over the course of centuries with the establishment of new powers, commercial exchanges, and the emergence of new social hierarchies. In Italy, an exporter of many important materials that differentiated specific fashions, from silk to lace, from gloves to embroidery, this new development was present in the towns, in arts and crafts guilds, and also in the aristocratic courts. The frequent changing of clothes was exclusively reserved for the upper classes, who had the means to personalize the image they presented. Although the new role of clothing had a strong influence in restricted circles, it did not enjoy the same degree of diffusion as at the French royal court. However, in different ways, clothing, and therefore fashion, was a means of affirming power: the lower orders struggled to follow it and the sumptuary laws — a mine of information, and which constituted a moralizing echo of the denouncements of saints and preachers — were, in the end, futile. Issued too frequently to be effective, they were unable to prevent the many obtaining access to the luxuries of the few, in order to demonstrate and affirm themselves socially, as well as demonstrate their financial means. Fashion is vanity and — with its mutations from one style to another, and its slavish pursuance of the ideals of beauty and seduction to attract the opposite sex — it promotes waste. But this is precisely the key to its role as a bearer of riches: not only for those who take advantage of and follow it, but also for those who produce it. Fitelieu’s condemnation (La Contre Mode, 1642) had a parallel in Colbert’s revealing desire to procure Italian artisans who would reveal their skills to the lace makers of Limoges and Valencienne, prompted by the huge prices paid for that fashionable ornament, lace. Already, these phenomena, which have been a constant feature of fashion from the fourteenth century to the present, indicate the particular complexity of the competitive, social, and economic factors that underlie it. Hated, opposed or tolerated, fashion has provoked strong reactions in both men and women; it changes and becomes diffused, decays and becomes more complicated, seemingly with no master but itself, while benefiting from the development of new social groups, the progress of craft, art, and wars. It was only in the mid-seventeenth, and above all the eighteenth century, that people began to study fashion as a specific phenomenon, apart from the descriptions and advice on costume that can be found in works such as Baldassare Castiglione’s Il Cortegiano (1528). Attention to fashion began with the tailors’ books that, during the Renaissance, included sketches and pattern instructions for copying and, the following century, with the work of very careful observers such as Cesare Vecellio who, almost from an ethnographic point of view, recorded and drew the clothing of different populations, certainly without analyzing appearances in terms of fashion as such, but more to pinpoint the evolution of garments. These were the first works to suggest that fashions were initiated by princes and lords. However, taste is derived from a combination of aspects of life. In this respect, the parallel between architectural and clothing forms is important. The circle of the Roman toga echoed the unsupported arch. The severe Romanesque style was repeated in the fluid garments of the Middle Ages and, likewise, the Gothic style was reflected in the peaked cones of women’s headwear and their pointed, elongated shoes. The closed, sixteenth-century schema was translated into magnificent gowns in the Baroque period, just as the fashion of the 1920s embodied many of the merits of Art Deco. It was in the mid-nineteenth century, with the increase in demand from the neo-romantic middle class, and in supply, through the birth of department stores and fashion magazines, that the term “fashion” took on its meaning of “a collective and passing enthusiasm for a type of clothing, design, or accessory.” At the same time, it established the specificity of the industries and professions that made different types of clothing and accessories. During this period, authors (such as Balzac) began to focus their attention on fashion as a descriptive element in order to relate daily life at all social levels. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Proust evoked time lost in the elegances of Guermantes and in the dresses of Fortuny. At a theoretical level, scholars finally began to turn their attention to fashion, analyzing it as the result of a variety of instinctive and individual needs and, formulating a system of appearances (Flugel, Kroeber), they developed its sociological connections through the diffusion of designs in a process of class imitation. Lower social groups imitated those above them, always one step behind, as the clothing models continued so that the upper classes might distinguish themselves (Spencer, Veblen). In recent times, there have been more structural analyses of the fashion phenomenon, functionalist with regard to the individual, thereby drawing closer to the internal laws of the fashion system. Fashion is clothing, but it is also a way of being, of choosing objects, of determining the fortune of a particular form of transport or a tourist resort. After World War II, with a larger proportion of the population enjoying a more comfortable lifestyle, the expansion of the demand and supply of fashion reached new peaks, thanks to prêt-à-porter and runway shows in Italy and France, as was already the case in England, Spain, and the United States. Clothing became an aid to life and work, a way of belonging and communicating. The widely diffused, superficial view that fashion was futile and merely an indication of vanity, had by now been abandoned. Fashion is always strictly linked with its time. Often the half-hidden suggestions of change are very revealing: indicating the encounter between a desire and a particular need to break free, with the result that a new fashion is formed, once the economic climate is right. Sometimes the apparently bizarre nature of a new accessory, or a hairstyle that achieves wide popularity, blinds us to the disappearance of a garment that has been fashionable for years. The fashion for short garments (Courrèges, Mary Quant) during the 1960s was an expression of faith in progress, technology, and a modernity with an unlimited future. During the petrol wars and years of terrorism of the 1970s, feelings of nostalgia for retro and “poor” fashion were aroused. But short or long is one of the recurring extremes of the cyclical changes of fashion. The logical necessity of fashion sometimes takes advantage of that process of constant change necessary for its survival. Equally fundamental for the survival of fashion is the desire on the part of designers and industry to study the styles of the past, even though this type of research is becoming rarer. The irrefutable democratization of fashion has, little by little, halted the “trickle-down” effect, from elites, leaders and stars to consumers whose role is to diffuse and devalue it. In recent times, the creative role of street style has overturned such hierarchies. The jean phenomenon is typical of this reversal.
Small triangular shawl, worn on the shoulders or around the neck and knotted or held with a brooch in front. Very fashionable in the 18th century, when they were used to decorate fashionably deep décolleté. Usually white or ecru, fichus were generally made of silk, lace or batiste. Fichus enjoyed a mini-renaissance in the 1980s when designer Christian Lacroix freely interpreted them in dresses inspired by his native Provence.