American manufacturer of sails and nautical clothing. In 1982, at Harvard University, Robbie Doyle, one of the competitors for the Americas Cup, applied the principle of “elliptical loading” to sails, improving their performance and transforming his company into one of the most technologically advanced, with 40 sails factories all over the world. The sails of the Amerigo Vespucci and of solitary sailors such as Giovanni Soldini and Christophe Augin are manufactured by Doyle. In 1995, the firm created a line of nautical clothing and a line for leisure time, thanks to an agreement with Red, a factory specialized in this field. The men’s and women’s Collections feature high quality technical materials, perfect wearability, functionality, and comfort in sweatshirts, sweaters, jackets, trousers, skirts, T-“shirts, and polo shirts, in addition to accessories and travel bags.


Ermanno (1950). Italian designer, born in Florence. He entered the world of fashion as owner of a chain of shops in Florence and Cortina selling clothing and accessories. Through direct contact with the public, Daelli acquired that special sensitivity to trends which allowed him to make his own début in 1985 as a successful designer of women’s bags and belts: a casual style of Anglo-Saxon inspiration. In 1990 he organized his first presentation of women’s wear in Milan and, six months later, he launched a men’s line: metropolitan in inspiration with some ethnic touches and a strong passion for the rigor and essentiality of Japanese design. Afterward, he sold the brand, which continues to be produced, although without any connection to him. Since 1997 he has designed the Ermanno Scervino line.
Daelli continues to design his Collection for Ermanno Scervino. In 1999, the line has a turnover of 50 billion liras, an increase of 200% over the previous year.
He lands in Southeast Asia thanks to an agreement just concluded with the luxury multinational Joyce, which has some 200 points-of-sale, 50 of them in Hong Kong alone.
The clothing line is expanded by a new line of shoes and bags.
The new men’s Autumn-Winter 2003-2004 Collection is presented in the Florence boutique on via Tornabuoni at the time of Pitti Uomo: a Chinese style added to the English dandy of the 1940s, with cuts, shapes and details in military style, and fabrics including velvet, flannel, and tweed as well as nylon and leather. The details are very important, from crocodile-skin frogs to Chinese passementeries. The most precious piece is certainly the dankalia fur, made from a very rare African goat, next to a zebu fur.
The début of the Florentine brand Ermanno Scervino on the Milan runways. The presentation takes place in via della Spiga. It is a collection especially focused on femininity and sensuality, for example with a petticoat-dress manufactured, in the Winter version, in pashmina and woolen lace.


Jean Louis (1942). French hairdresser. He has three salons in Paris and four in the rest of France. Besides his acknowledged skills, his fame is linked to the concept of independent presentations of new hairdos and cuts at the same time as the seasonal presentation of fashion Collections. Each year since 1985, in his Paris “showroom” near the Bastille, he has presented two Collections, to fashion personnel and designers, as if on a runway. From this came the idea of a school that makes use of fashion presentations, admits only professional hairdressers, and offers courses on cutting and a philosophy of hairdressing that, although bearing in mind current trends and the suggestions of tailors and designers, always gives first importance to the face and personality of the client. A hair academy like this attracts some 20,000 aspiring hairdressers each year.


Marc Alain (1930). French psychoanalyst. In his book Psychosociologie de la Mode he analysed fashion as a structure of systematic and constant elements: the need for change, the game of imitation, belonging to a group, collective taste and trends, the individual’s need to differentiate, and the economic aspect. In his view, clothing in itself is a code of communication that is transmitted through fabrics, shapes, and colors. It express the moods, personalities, social classes, professions, cultural levels, and aspirations of those who wear it.


Hebe (1925-1987). Journalist. From the 1960s up until her death, she was a fashion editor at the International Herald Tribune. In one of design’s most sparkling and creative periods, she was a lucid, independent, and caustic interpreter of its trends. She was well known for her multi-faceted &b;s, colorful elegance. Nicknamed “the Tunisian from the West” because of her African origins and the dash of her lively, bright style, she made a name for herself as one of the most influential and feared personalities in fashion journalism, and was able to become a critic of shapes and clothing, giving generous and early attention to new talents. Her psychological studies of designers and young stylists remain extraordinary, in timeless portraits ranging from Saint-Laurent to Coveri.

Duke of Windsor

(1894-1972). The romantic Duke of Windsor, who for a few months was Edward VIII, King of England, was the most elegant man of the 20th century. On the other hand, it was the Celts, the ancient inhabitants of Britain, invented the “bracae,” or trousers, while the ancient Romans still wore the modest “subligatulae,” a kind of underpants of no elegance at all and useless as protection against the cold. This tells a lot about the aptitude of Englishmen when it comes to setting fashions for the rest of the world. With this kind of background, English and Anglophile men’s fashion became the most classic and self-assured anywhere. By way of argument, it could also be said that England gave birth to movements and “anti-fashions” which periodically upended the normal laws of elegance, in a kind of short circuit that already glittered in the time of the Regency, when the splendid life of London high society was able to produce a character like George “Beau” Brummel and then immediately mythologize him, to the point that Balzac would define him as “an exceptional man, a prince, and a patriarch of fashion.” Possessing the charisma needed in order to invent rules of fashion, with originality, a spirit of independence, and restraint, Brummel, though not an aristocrat, was able to shine in a society that considered fashion to be the province of the aristocracy. His life, his deeds, and his words gave weight and dignity to the search for refinement and elegance, justifying frivolity and vanity (the implied principles of fashion) and creating a relationship of elective affinity between fashion and culture. Not by accident, Brummel and other celebrated dandies such as Byron, Wilde, Beardsley, and Bearbohm were great poets and artists. With these precedents (and despite D’Annunzio and the creations of Armani), the most elegant man of the century had to be an Englishman. The Duke of Windsor, then: what was the source of his elegance? Well, it is appropriate to say that elegance is a gift, one of many bestowed by the gods in ways that may seem unfair, in the same way that someone may be handsome, intelligent, or charming. There are no recipes; elegance is a sort of grace, an inner security which makes you feel comfortable in your clothes. The Duke of Windsor had this grace, this security, at a maximum level. His most celebrated inventions were the dinner jacket (in Italy and France it is called smoking), made in a fabric called “midnight blue,” a very dark blue color that under artificial light appears blacker than black, and was worn for the first time in 1920; the Windsor knot, a perfectly triangular large tie knot that was very popular in the 1950s but worn so badly that the Duke repudiated it; and the Windsor collar, with wide, short points, to which the Duke was faithful for his entire life and which is still very popular in Italy, especially in Milan. The Duke of Windsor was the first to regularly wear brown shoes and to wear them in different shades as well. Until that time, in the 1920s, a gentleman would own only very boring black shoes, as brown was meant only for the working class. His unexpected, atypical, creative use of color was surprising: the Duke was the first, long before American preppies, to popularize bright pink and pastel trousers, which, because of the above-mentioned divine injustice, looked wonderful on him. For the preppies, on the other hand, it was a disaster. Which is to say that for the elegance of one it is often necessary to sacrifice the many.

Dante Prini

Italian company that designs, manufactures, and markets silk fabrics for ties on an international level. It works with all the most important griffes in the field, and exports 80% of its production. The design work is done in Como and at the subsidiary offices in New York and London. The manufacturing is in Italy. Some of the printing is done in China through a joint venture agreement. Established in 1936 by Dante Prini and developed by his son Enrico, in 1997 the company passed under the joint control of the Miroglio textile group, the Mediocredito Lombardo bank, and the employees.

Dessous China

Clothing fair dedicated to underwear and beachwear, held in Beijing. Organized by the Igedo Company, it is held every year in March. This is the third event promoted by Igedo in the People’s Republic, together with Fashion China (10th to 12th September, in Shanghai) and Chic (27th to 30th March, in Beijing). At Dessous China in 2003, for the 8th edition, about 100 companies participated, 40 of them from Europe. In 2002, the fair occupied 60,000 square feet in the Beijing Exposition Center, while in 2003 it was at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Center. The fair is not just a way for international companies and Asian buyers to meet, but also a place for forums, debates, and information on fashion.

Duffer of St. George

English brand of men’s fashions. It was created in 1984 and made successful by designers Michael Cairns, Eddie Prendergast, and Barrie K. Sharpe. They have a store in Covent Garden, London.


A long, wide hooded cloak, originally only in black and later in precious, sometimes colored, fabrics. Worn with fancy evening clothes. As a unisex item, it is worn during Carnival at masked balls.