Gianfranco Ferré, the “Architect of Fashion”, is an Italian designer. In 1978, together with Mattioli, he established Gianfranco Ferré S.p.a.


  1. Biography
    1. The Debut
    2. The First Collection
    3. A Brilliant Career
    4. The Last Years
  2. Events, Exhibitions and Projects
    1. 70s
    2. 80s
    3. 90s
    4. Early 2000s
  3. Awards & Recognitions
    1. 70’s/80’s
    2. 90’s
    3. Early 2000s


Gianfranco Ferré was born in Legnano (Milan) on August 15, 1944.

After earning his high school diploma specializing in sciences, he enrolled in the School of Architecture at the Milan Polytechnic Institute. In 1969 he graduated, presenting a thesis on the “Methodology of the Approach to Composition” with Franco Albini, an architect, as his major professor.

Gianfranco Ferre Dressing Model 1982
Gianfranco Ferre Dressing Model in 1982

The Debut

His very first, quite off-hand entry into the world of fashion took place in the same years. Ferré designed jewelry and accessories that he would then give to friends and classmates. Rosy Biffi, a true talent scout as well as the owner of one of Milan’s edgiest boutiques, had occasion to notice the creations. She mentioned them to Ileana Pareto Spinola and Anne Sophie Benazzo, two women who were so impressed by these handcrafted items that they suggested buyers might take an interest in them. At that point prominent Italian fashion editors (initially, Anna Piaggi and Anna Riva) happened to spy the creations. This led to coverage in major specialty mags and in 1971 one of the accessories appeared on the cover of the Italian monthly “Arianna”. Ferré’s early debut on the scene proved very successful. It even attracted the attention of leading Italian journalist Camilla Cederna, who talked about Ferré in her weekly column for the newsmagazine “L’Espresso”.


In 1973, the young architect-designer made the first of his many trips to India, where up until 1977 he spent long periods working for the Genoa-based San Giorgio Impermeabili clothing company owned by the Borelli family. In India he designed and had manufactured the company’s “Ketch” collection.  At the same time, he had the chance to visit every part of the country and to study local craftsmanship and production potential, also on behalf of the Indian government. Ferré fell literally under the spell of India, a land where he consolidated his professional training and embarked on his creative path. From India he learned a fundamental lesson of life, all about the colors, scents and shapes forming a whole with feelings, sensations and emotions. It’s a lesson that he would later transfer to and instill inextricably in his collections, through his own remarkable way of reminiscing and remembering.

The First Collection

In the same years, during his stays in Italy, he did free-lance work designing accessories for prominent fashion names such as Walter Albini and Christiane Bailly, as well as knitwear and swimwear for other companies in the sector. His swimsuits debuted on the catwalk at the “MareModa Capri” event, winning a prize that marked the first of many the designer would earn throughout the course of his career.

In 1974, Gianfranco Ferré began designing his first collections, hosting his first fashion shows, in particular for the “Courlande” and the “Baila” labels , the latter which belonged to Franco Mattioli, a Bolognese industrialist who in 1978 would become his business partner.

A Brilliant Career

In May of 1978, in fact, the Gianfranco Ferré company was set up on Via San Damiano in Milan (later the headquarters would move to Via della Spiga). In October of the same year, Ferré presented his debut signature women’s ready-to-wear collection with a show at the Principe di Savoia Hotel in Milan, truly a thrilling moment.

In addition to the launch of the men’s clothing line in 1982 , and to the introduction of a wide range of accessories and other products on license in partnership with leading companies in the various respective sectors, Ferré made a mark with two other key experiences: the creation of his own Alta Moda collection (1986-1989) and his extraordinary adventure at the finest and most storied of French fashion houses.

In 1983, he helped to develop the curriculum for Domus Academy, the new Milan-based Design, Design Management and Fashion Design Post-graduate School where up until 1989 he taught the course in Dress Design: analysis of dress design and relation to changing fashion, analysis of the design project from start to finish.

In May of 1989, Gianfranco Ferré was appointed Artistic Director of Christian Dior for the women’s Haute Couture, Prêt à Porter and Fourrure lines. Confirmation of the Dior appointment up to 1996 came in 1993.

Gianfranco Ferre Dior Haute Couture Spring/Summer 96 Show in France
Dior Haute Couture Spring/Summer 96 Show in France

In the fall of 1998, on the occasion of the brand’s twentieth anniversary a series of events important for the company’s future culminated with the grand opening in Milan of the new headquarters on Via Pontaccio: in the former Gondrand building, after a total renewal based on the initial project by Marco Zanuso, then completed by Franco Raggi both on the level of the executive project and interior architecture.

The Last Years

In 2002, the Gianfranco Ferré Company was acquired by Tonino Perna’s IT Holding Group. Gianfranco Ferré became Artistic Director of the house.

In March of 2007, Gianfranco Ferré was appointed President of the Brera Fine Arts Academy in Milan.

After suffering a brain hemorrhage, Gianfranco Ferré died in Milan on June 17, 2007.

Events, Exhibitions and Projects


1975: Creation of garments for SNIA’s “Dressing in Jersey” project

1976: Creation of garments for the project “Pizzi e Rasi” of SNIA, Milan; creation of garments for the project “The day of a child” by Leacril Montefibre, Milan; creation of garments for the project “New signatures for new projects” of SNIA, Milan

1977: Creation of garments for the “SNIA per 6 sports” project, Milan

1978 / ’79: Creation of garments for the “Zegna Baruffa” yarns at Pitti Filati, Florence; event – fashion show for “Saks Fifth Avenue“, New York


Gianfranco Ferre FW 87 Photographed by Herb Ritts
Fall/Winter 87 Photographed by Herb Ritts

1981: Creation of the representation uniform for Lea Pedini, Capitana del Popolo, Regent of the Republic of San Marino, worn on the occasion of the inaugural ceremony, Milan.

1982: Participation in the exhibition “Intimate Architecture: Contemporary Clothing Design”, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston; Fashion show at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), linked to the exhibition “Intimate Architecture: Contemporary Clothing Design”, Boston; participation in the “Design in Italian Society in the Eighties” exhibition: traveling exhibition in the USA, by the La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego

1983: Sponsorship of the restoration of the Guercino frescoes in the dome of the Duomo of Piacenza; participation in the exhibition “Creators of Italian Fashion 1920-1980” at the Daimaru and Costume Museums of the Academy of Fashion and Costume, Osaka and Tokyo; participation in the “The Best Five” event, annually organized by the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun and by WWD Japan, Tokyo; parade-night event in Piazza Santo Stefano, Bologna

1984: Event – “Gianfranco Ferré” fashion show, in the setting of Osaka Castle; participation in the exhibition “Il genio antipatico” at the Galoppatoio of Villa Borghese, Rome; participation in the “Alla Moda di Torino” Convention; event-fashion show at the “Modewoche”, Munich; project of a carpet for Sisal, exhibited at the exhibition “Italian design for the western carpet”, on the occasion of the Salone del Mobile, Milan; project for B & B Italia, to dress sofas and armchairs of the series “Gli abiti”, designed by Paolo Nava, Milan; costumes for the theater “Tamara”, Los Angeles and New York; creation of T-shirts for “T-show. History and new styles in the T-Shirt “, project realized by the Cotonificio Cantoni textile group, Legnano

1985: Participation in the “Italia. The Genius of Fashion”, New York; exhibition at the Museo Civico Medievale, Bologna; participation in the “RENart” project, a series of free and different interpretations of the Renault Supercinque model, with Alessandro Mendini, Mario Merz, Ugo Nespolo, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Paolo Portoghesi, Franco Maria Ricci and Ettore Sottsass, Milan

1986: Participation in “Italia: il Genio della Moda”, exhibition curated by Pia Soli, Milan; costumes for “This is the Arena, Maria Callas was born here”, a charity evening for aid to Third World countries, Verona; fashion show at Trinità dei Monti, with a selection of garments from the Gianfranco Ferré Alta Moda Fall / Winter collection 1986-87, Rome

1987: Event for the presentation of the “Gianfranco Ferré” Women’s Perfume in Greece at the Hotel Grande Bretagne, Athens; event for the inauguration of the Gianfranco Ferré boutique, Rome; participation in the RAI television event, organized by the magazine “Moda” of Edizioni E.R.I. at the Gardens of Villa Reale, Milan; fashion show at the Yurakucho Asahi Hall on the occasion of the opening of the boutique in Sonnette Aoyama, Tokyo

1988: Participation in the “Tartan” exhibition at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York; participation in the “Moda Italia” exhibition organized in collaboration with ICE, New York; participation in “Progetto Uomo ’88” organized by Saga Furs and dedicated to men’s fur, Milan

1989: Participation – the only fashion designer – at “Italian Manifesto”, 39th International Design Conference, Aspen; lecture: “The path of the project”; creation of garments for “Lana Gatto” collection A / W 89-90 at Pitti Filati, Florence; participation in the “La Moda Italiana for the Floriani Foundation” event with Gianfranco Ferré Fourrures, Milan; sponsorship of the project of the European School of Oncology aimed at creating the Foundation of the same School, aimed at financing its activities, Milan; participation in the “La Moda Italiana for the Floriani Foundation” event with Gianfranco Ferré Fourrures, Venice; charity event in favor of the Italian Association for Cancer Research at Palazzo Butera, Palermo


Gianfranco Ferre 1990
Gianfranco Ferre 1990

1990: Creation of a new mask for the Ambrosian Carnival proposed in the exhibition at Palazzo Dugnani, Milan; participation in “The Art of Fashion”, Diana Vreeland Fund for Exhibitions of the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; participation in the exhibition “Moments of Italian design in industry and fashion”, Seoul; participation in the “Florence dreams” event in the Loggia of the Uffizi Gallery, Florence; participation in the “Italia ’90” fashion show, with clothes inspired by Europe, at the San Siro Stadium, Milan; creation of mink garments for the American Legend show, Palazzo della Ragione, Milan; event-fashion show for “Association of Total Fashion”, Tokyo

1991: Participation in the International Textile Forum, organized by the Ratti Foundation, Como; lecture: “Stilism and creativity before the challenges of the new millennium”; charity evening in favor of ANLAIDS – Lombarda section with Gianfranco Ferré fashion show and Gino Paoli concert, Galleria Theater, Legnano; fashion show at the opening of the Gianfranco Ferré boutique in Washington D.C

1992: Participation in the first “Convivio”, as promoter with Armani, Valentino and Versace, Milan; “Gianfranco Ferré” fashion show and launch of the “Ferré by Ferré” perfume at the Opéra Comique, Paris; event-show “Das Gesicht 92”, Berlin

1993: “Chic ’93” event, promoted by the China Tiangong Clothing Science & Technological Development Group, Beijing; “Gianfranco Ferré Uomo” fashion show at the Stazione Leopolda, Florence; guest of honor at the inauguration of the “Creative Haus“, Duesseldorf

1994: Heads exhibited in the exhibition “Japonism in Fashion” at the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto; participation in the Ravenna Festival, Ravenna; lecture: “Dreams and visions”; participation in “The Fashion Group International Night of Stars”: special tribute to Bernardine Morris, New York; participation in the Enka Viscose project “Creativity at the Opera”, Milan

1995: “AIDS Project Los Angeles” event-show at Century Plaza Hotel, Los Angeles; event-fashion show at the National Palace of Culture, Sofia; “Rédacteur en chef” of the special Christmas issue of “Le Point”, Paris; participation in the exhibition “Between Fashion and Design. Infinite line “at the Palazzo della Triennale, Milan; Studio 000.1 event by Ferré, New York; creation of a dress for the fashion show “Fashion’s world health to peace”, Caesarea / Israel; creation of a quilted stole for the project “A heart for a friend” by ANLAIDS, Milan

1996: Gieffeffe perfume launch event at Saks Fifth Avenue, New York and San Francisco; lecture: “Créateur and couturier experience”, Fashion Institure of Technology, New York; exhibition of drawings, Academy of Art College, San Francisco; participation in the Second International Forum on car style, Turin; lecture: “Design in Fashion”; participation in the first Fashion Biennial “Time and Fashion”, installations in the Cappelle Medicee, Florence; creation of a Christmas gateau exclusively for Lenôtre, Paris

1997: Sponsorship of the F.A.I. event al Castello di Masino “The elegance of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, historical clothes from the Masino Gallery of the Costume of Florence”; participation in the seminar of courses in “Theories and techniques of Architecture” at the Polytechnic, Milan; lecture: “Composition and Fashion”; “Ferré Week”, with a show at the “Sezon Theater”, Tokyo; exhibition “A white story”, Seibu Ikebukuro, Tokyo; lecture: “Designing the subject”, United Nation University, Tokyo; lecture: “The jewel between East and West. A path between design and fantasy “, Domus Academy, Milan; creation of clothes for Dario Fo, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, and for his wife Franca Rame, Stockholm; creation of a sheepskin blouson for the charity event “21 designers rething shearling for benefit”, Paris; creation of a denim blouson for DIFFA – Design Industries Foundation Fighting AIDS “, Dallas

1998: Lecture: “Fashion in the Present, Fashion in the Future: the Values ​​of Creativity” Association for Development in the Fashion Industry, University of Bologna, Bologna; participation in the final plenary session of IAF 1998, Palazzo dei Congressi, Florence; lecture: “The consumer at the center of the fashion designer’s strategy”; opening of the headquarters in Via Pontaccio 21, Milan; party to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the “Gianfranco Ferré” label, Milan; “Immaginario” exhibition-labyrinth in via Pontaccio, Milan; fashion show and charity event in favor of British Red Cross, Banqueting House, Whitehall, London; lecture: “Designing the subject”, Central Saint Martin’s College of Arts & Design, London; participation in the “Intimare” exhibition with the collection “Gianfranco Ferré Underwear” Uomo e Donna, Bologna; fashion show of the GFF Donna Fall / Winter 1998-99 collection, Teatro Franco Parenti, Milan

1999: “F & F” project: packaging for the “Brunello da Montalcino Riserva 2000”, production by Marchesi Frescobaldi, Milan, Berlin, New York, Tokyo; event of Ideacomo, Villa d’Este, Cernobbio; exhibition “Fifteen years of partnership with Sàfilo”, via Via Pontaccio, Milan; costumes for the Biennale Danza created for Carla Fracci and Carolyn Carlsson, Venice; creation of a leather model for the sprinter Marion Jones for the “Tag Heuer” exhibition, Milan; participation as a guest of honor at “Donna sotto le stelle” at Trinità dei Monti, to celebrate 20 years of activity, Rome; creation of costumes for “Le ballet du cadre noir de Saumur” with the étoile Patrick Dupont at the Stade de France, Paris; participation in the “Furtherfantasy” photo exhibition organized by Vogue Italia at the Galleria Giò Marconi, Milan; participation in the exhibition “50 anos de mode italiana”organized by the National Chamber of Fashion Italy, curated by Fiorella Galgano, with the support of Italian and Brazilian authorities and cultural institutions in several cities of the country.

Early 2000s

2000: Participation in the “Le Teddies de l’an 2000” project in favor of British Red Cross, Montecarlo; donation of clothes and accessories from the historical archive Gianfranco Ferré to the Costume Gallery of Palazzo Pitti, Florence; exhibition “Other Emotions”: garments donated to the Costume Gallery of Palazzo Pitti, in an exhibition by Margherita Palli, Florence; donation of archive items to the Fashion Institute of Technology, exhibited at the exhibition “The Corset Fashioning The Body” at the F.I.T. New York; creation of personalized labels for Evian mineral water bottles at Milano Moda Donna AI 2000/01; participation in the “Momi Intimo Designers” event, Fiera Milano

2001: Heads exhibited at the exhibition “Uniform. Order and disorder”at the Stazione Leopolda, Florence; guest of honor at the “Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival”, Shanghai; lecture: “Creativity and working method”, Fashion Institute, Dong Hua University, Shanghai; event-fashion show at the Museum of Art History, Vienna; participation in the exhibition “Silk. The twentieth century in Como “, organized by the Antonio Ratti Foundation in Villa Olmo, Como; participation in the exhibition “The Entertainers. The power of accessories” at the Stazione Leopolda, Florence; participation in the “Frock and Roll” fashion charity event, organized by Naomi Campbell and Harvey Goldsmith in favor of the “Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund”, together with Alexander Mc Queen, Barcelona; dresses from different collections selected by Luca Ronconi for the “Phoenix” show by Marina Cvetaeva, Piccolo Teatro, Milan; “Gianfranco Ferré Style for men” event in collaboration with Esquire USA, with a still-life display of garments and accessories from the different lines by Man designer, New York

Gianfranco Ferre 2002 Fall/Winter Collection
2002 Fall/Winter Collection

2002: “The Best of Gianfranco Ferré” fashion show at the headquarters via Pontaccio, Milan; joining Poste Italiane’s initiative: series of “Design Italiano Alta Moda” stamps, Milan

2003: “Gianfranco Ferré” fashion show-run at the Jeau de Paume Museum, Paris; event for the opening of the spa “E’SPA Gianfranco Ferré” in the renovated boutique in via Sant’Andrea, Milan; event-fashion show with the direction of Asia Argento for the debut of the GF FERRE ‘Donna e Uomo line at Superstudio +, Milan; event-parade of garments inspired by the female characters of opera, State Opera, Vienna; garments exhibited at the Musée des Tissus in the “50 and de mode Italian” exhibition, Lyon; leaders exhibited at the exhibition “Noches Italianas: trajes de excepcion para mujeres extraordinarias” (1950-1990) “hosted in museums in Latin America; guest of “The Monday of Milanese friends” at the Center Culturel Français, Milan; lecture: “The tailor of the two cities”; participation in the “GenovanversaeviceversA” exhibition, promoted by the Modemuseum, with clothes, fabrics and accessories, Antwerp; dresses from different collections selected by Luca Ronconi for the show “Peccato sia sia un sgualdrina” by John Ford on stage at the Piccolo Teatro, Milan; participation in the “Pigotte d’Autore” project, with a charity auction for Unicef, Reggio Emilia; participation as guest of honor at the inauguration of the exhibition “I mantelli delle Castellane” at the headquarters of the Banca di Legnano; event – “Oiseaux d’art” exhibition with an exhibition of the works of the artist Gregory Morizeau in the Gianfranco Ferré boutique in Milan; presentation dinner of the “Essence d’Eau” Women’s perfume in the Gianfranco Ferré offices, Milan; creation of representation seals for football club FC Bayern Muenche

Gianfranco Ferre 2004 Fall/Winter Collection
2004 Fall/Winter Collection

2004: Protagonist and guest of honor of the “Life Ball” event-show, 2004, Vienna; items exhibited at the “Excess” exhibition at the Stazione Leopolda, Florence; participation in the TV event “La notte delle stelle” at the Teatro Ariston, Sanremo; participation in the “La mode dessine l’espoir” project, at the invitation of the “Dessine l’espoir” association and under the patronage of the French Ministry of Culture, Paris; supply of archival clothing as costumes for “Peccato alle puttana” by John Ford, directed by Luca Ronconi for the Piccolo Teatro, Milan; opening event of the Gianfranco Ferré boutique on Madison Avenue, followed by dinner at “Le Grenouille”, New York City; participation in the “Carousel Ball of Hope’s Toy Car” solidarity project promoted by Mercedes Benz for the Children’s Diabetes Foundation, Los Angeles; participation in the fashion event organized by Ferrari and the Italian National Chamber of Fashion, Shanghai

2005: Creation of flight and ground personnel uniforms for Korean Air, Seoul; participation in the “Una notte a Roma” television event in Piazza Navona, Rome; fashion show-event for “Fashion in Motion”, Victoria & Albert Museum, London; guest of honor of “Festa Italiana”, Mumbai and New Delhi; creation of uniforms for the hostesses of “Première Vision”, Milan; participation in the “West looks East” solidarity show-event, Washington; participation in the exhibition “The thread becomes history”, organized in the Costume Gallery at Palazzo Pitti on the occasion of the thirty years of Lineapiù, Florence; “stamp” creation for the ten years of “Io Donna”, Milan; launch of the “Gianfranco Ferré Special Order” project: creation of evening garments in different sizes and colors from those presented on the catwalk for individual clients, Milan

2006: Event-fashion show for the inauguration of the Boscolo Hotel in the historic building of the New York Café, Budapest; exhibition “MEx32”, with the creation of 32 T-shirts inspired by the countries participating in the World Soccer Championships, proposed in the Gianfranco Ferré, Florence and Milan boutiques; participation in the “Human Game” exhibition at the Stazione Leopolda, Florence; participation in the “Genio y Figura” exhibition at the Museo del Traje, Madrid; participation in the “Passion for fashion” TV show-event at the Manoel Island, Valletta; participation in “Luxury Conference 2006” organized by the International Herald Tribune at the Sheraton Hotel, Istanbul; lecture: “Exotic inspirations”; solidarity event in favor of the Francesca Nava Foundation: a show by René Fleming at the Teatro alla Scala and a gala dinner at the Gianfranco Ferré headquarters in honor of the soprano, Milan

2007: Sponsorship of the restoration of the painting “Adamo crying Abel” by Johan Karl Loth, exhibited at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence; Donna AI 2007/2008 fashion show: the rock singer Skin wears a top studded with authentic diamonds, at the fashion show follows a live concert at the headquarters in Via Pontaccio, Milan; TV show-event at the Lufti Kirdar Convention and Exhibition Center on the occasion of the first edition of the “Fashion TV Turkey Awards”, Istanbul; lecture: “The forms of emotions. Shaping emotions” at the Faculty of Architecture, Politecnico, Milan; creation of a wedding ring for the exhibition “Eternal Platinum – The ultimate Symbol of Love”, hosted at the Palazzo della Triennale, Milan; October: Participation in the exhibition “Contro Moda. The contemporary fashion of the permanent collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art”, Palazzo Strozzi, Florence

Awards and Recognitions

70s / 80s

1976: July, Capri: “Tiberio d’oro”, prize of “MareModa Capri”

1982: October, Milan: “Golden Eye” for the best women’s collection P / E1983

1983: March, Milan: “Golden Eye” for the best women’s collection A / W 83-84; November, Tokyo: “The Best Five”, recognition of the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun and WWD Japan

1984: September, Genoa: recognition of the Chamber of Commerce; October, Milan: “Occhio d’oro” for the best women’s spring / summer collection in 1985; November, Hollywood: Recognition for the costumes of the theatrical piece “Tamara”

1985: March, Munich: “Modepreis”, as the best fashion designer of the year for women’s fashion; April, Bologna: Recognition of the Municipality; May, Mantova: recognition of the “Gazzetta di Mantova”, as part of the “Fashion Awards” event; June, New York: “Cutty Sark Men’s Fashion Award”, as the best fashion designer of the year for men’s fashion; September, Varese, Golf Club: Cup for participation in the collection of vintage bouts and Haute Couture; December, Milan, Palazzo Marino: “Ambrogino d’Oro”, medal of civic merit of the City of Milan

1986: January, Rome, Palazzo del Quirinale: honor of “Commendatore of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic”, by the President of the Republic Sen. Francesco Cossiga; March, Milan: “Golden Eye” award for the best women’s collection A / W 86-87; May, Bologna: plate of “Linea Pelle” to recognize the creative commitment; May, Palermo: AIRC recognition from the City of Palermo; November, Legnano: “Tessera d’Oro” of the Legnanese Family

1987: arzo, Milan: “Occhio d’oro” for the best women’s collection A / W 87-88; May, Tokyo: plate of the “Association of Total Fashion”; November, Legnano: recognition of the Legnano Lions Club and Legnano Carroccio Lions Club in joint session; Turin: “Cavour d’Argento” award. City of Turin”

1988: April, Busto Arsizio: Rotary Professional Award

1989: May, Milan: “Telegatto” Prize, among others awarded, Giulio Andreotti and Enzo Biagi; July, Paris, Palais Galliera Gardens: “Dé d’or” after the first Haute Couture collection for Christian Dior, as the best couturier of the season; July, Rome: special recognition as a fashion character in 1989, by the Associazione di via Borgognona; September, Ischia: “Modaischia 1989” award; November, Legnano: certificate of civic merit of the City of Legnano; December, Milan: “Occhio d’oro” which consecrates the “signature of the year of Italian fashion”; December, Milan nominates “Milanese of the Year” from the “Meneghina Family”


Gianfranco Ferre Vogue Sep 1991 AD Featuring Aly Dunne Photographed by Gianpaolo Barbieri
Vogue Sep 1991 AD Featuring Aly Dunne Photographed by Gianpaolo Barbieri

1990: March, Milan: “The great protagonists”, prize of the “Italian Fur Association”; June, Milan: recognition for participation in Italy ’90; October, Florence Palazzo Vecchio: “Lorenzo the Magnificent”, award of the “Medicean International Academy”

1991: prile, Legnano: recognition of the Busto Arsizio Cisalpino Lions Club; June, Florence, Palazzo Vecchio: “Il Fiorino d’oro” award, from the City of Florence; June, Los Angeles: Recognition of the County of Los Angeles and Music Center of the County of Los Angeles

1992: September, Mexico D.F .: “El sol de oro”, recognition of the Circulo Nacional de Periodistas as “Creador de la elegancia y distinction en European fashion”; December, Vienna: “Diva-Wollsiegel”, IWS award in collaboration with the magazine “Diva”

1993: May, Beijing: appointment to “Senior Adviser” from the “China Tiangong Clothing Science & Technological Development Group and National Garments Research”; official meeting with the President of the People’s Republic of China, Jan Zemin, in the Forbidden City; June, Florence, Palazzo Vecchio: “Pitti Immagine Uomo”, special prize of Pitti Immagine; November, Milan: “Paul Harris Fellow”, Rotary International Rotary Foundation Award

1994: May, Baveno: Lions Club “recognition” plaque; September, New York: “The Fashion Group International” award; November, Campione d’Italia: “Maschera d’oro”, from the Mayor of the City of Campione

1995: May, Los Angeles.Century Plaza: “Crystal Apple Award” special award of the “California Fashion Industry Friends of Aids Project Los Angeles”; November, Milan: “Circolo degli Incontri” plaque, awarded annually to Milanese personalities distinguished in the field of Art and Culture

1996: September, New York and San Francisco: recognition for the participation in the special events Saks Fifth Avenue dedicated to Gianfranco Ferré; October, Milan: “Masters of Linen” special prize of the “European Confederation of Linen and Hemp”

1997: May, Legnano: “Always Licenses” award from the city’s State Scientific Liceo

1999: March, Como, Palazzo Cernezzi: delivery of the City of Como’s keys by the Mayor; March, Como, Villa’D’este “Certificate of Ideacomo” in recognition of his talent and his culture; March, Milan: “Fur Fashion Award – special 50 years” special prize of the “Italian Fur Association”; July, Rome: award of the “National Chamber of Italian Fashion” for twenty years of activity, during the event “Woman under the stars”

Early 2000s

2000: November, Legnano: card of the “Legnanese Family” “Member in the fiftieth year”

2001: April, Shanghai: appointment to “Senior Adviser of Garment Arts” by the Mayor of the City of Shanghai; May, Legnano: Grand Priory of the Contrada della Flora

2002: June, Milan: frieze from the Municipality of Milan

2003: November, Düsseldorf: “Kinder in Not”, UNESCO special prize

Gianfranco Ferre Receiving Awards 2004
Gianfranco Ferre Receiving Awards 2004

2004: March, Berlin, “Star Diamond Award” of “American Academy of Hospitality Sciences” for E’SPA at Gianfranco Ferré; April, Milan: “Silver lady”, prize of the “Association of Friends of the Poldi Pezzoli Museum” awarded to “Men and Women Who Make Great Milan”; September, Sanremo: recognition for participation in “Sanremo Fashion”; September, Milan: career award from “Chi è Chi del giornalismo e della moda”

2005: February, Milan, Teatro alla Scala: “Sigillo Longobardo”, from the Lombardy Regional Council

2006: July, Milan: “Certificate of Appreciation” by the Lions District 108Ib1

2007: March, Milan: appointment as President of the Brera Academy of Fine Arts


Moschino is an Italian luxury fashion house founded in 1983 by Franco Moschino. Known as the enfant terrible of fashion due to its unconventional ways.


  1. The Origin
  2. Moschino Style
  3. Cheap & Chic
  4. Exhibition: Enfant Terrible
  5. Moschino Acquire by Ferretti Group
  6. Collections
  7. Brand Development
    1. Watches
    2. Official Partners
  8. Supporting Charity
  9. Jeremy Scott
  10. Current Situation

The Origin

Franco Moschino (1950-1994) was an iconoclastic designer who never wanted to be known as such. He arrived at the top by overturning all the rules: of good taste, style, advertising, presentations, and runway shows. The industry called Moschino the enfant terrible of Italian fashion, which means a person who behaves in an unconventional or controversial way.

Franco Moschino
Franco Moschino

Franco Moschino studied Fine Arts at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. He planned to be a painter, but his role as an illustrator for Versace in 1971 set him on the fashion road. In 1977 he was fashion designer for the historic Italian label Cadette, where he honed his skills and developed his own precise stylistic language.

Moschino Style

Moschino Stop the Fashion System Collection
Stop the Fashion System Collection

In 1983 he started his own label, with an explosive mix of paradoxes, challenges, and elegance which criticized and mocked the excesses of the fashion system and the paroxysmal society which was the image of the 1980s. The company founded by Franco Moschino, Moonshadow S.r.l., debuted with its first collection, which was ironic, surreal, ingenious, perverse, and totally represented Moschino’s style. Ironically, his style declared “stop the fashion system,” but its success was because of that system. A theorist of freedom and improvisation, he claimed not to be an inventor, but a “restaurant trying to provide those well-cooked traditional dishes which were invented by unknown cooks.”

Moschino Fall/Winter 1988 Campaign
Fall/Winter 1988 Campaign

His work did indeed revisit all the aesthetics of the century, adopting and reworking them with a hybrid injection of humor. He replaced the buttons of Chanel-style suits with windmills, and embroidered black sheath dresses with their price. He made skirts out of ties, jackets with fried eggs on the pockets, T-shirts emblazoned “Moschifo” (schifo means “disgusting” in Italian), dressed printed with the words “no dress no stress,” tops with trompe-l’oeil breasts.

Moschino Patches Blazer 1990
Patches Blazer 1990

He continued to break the rules with multiple sleeve shirts, multicolored blazers, waistcoats printed with cartoons, suits with appliquéd symbols of geese, Andalusian skirts made out of tartan, and toreador-style evening jackets. His personal style, despite being unpredictable and striking, was in fact based on classic, well-made shapes, perfectly cut and with seductive details which proved attractive to all markets.

Cheap & Chic

Moschino 1987 Fashion Show
1987 Fashion Show

The first line to be launched was Moschino Couture, and soon after came Cheap & Chic in 1980, Donna and Uomo in 1986, Moschino Jeans, lingerie, swimwear, bags, scarves, jewelry, perfume, all of which broke with fashion clichés. Publications, advertisements, and runway shows were similarly full of surprises. He would send pairs of knickers to actresses instead of invitations, he made his models go down the runway on their knees, he appeared in his own adverts in disguise, and created a fake Cardinal to promote his range of jeans.

Moschino Cheap & Chic Fragrance
Cheap & Chic Fragrance

Moschino created a scent for men with a two-headed bottle, and his women’s fragrance was provided with a drinking straw. He published Dadaist catalogues and created every kind of provocative entertainment imaginable, saying

“There is no creativity without chaos. The Moschino concept is based on complete freedom of choice. There are no rules. You wear whatever color you want, and if you still like what you were wearing last year, you can wear it this year, and next year if you want.”

All of this of course rang a strange note in a period where prêt-à-porter ruled, and labels dictated fashion.

The Exhibition: Enfant Terrible

Moschino 1999 AD Campaign
1999 AD Campaign

In 1993 the show Ten Years of Chaos was released at the Permanente di Milano. It was a journey through thousands of Moschino’s creative anomalies, culminated in an exhibition of paintings where the designer revealed to the public for the first time his original persona, that of a painter. The exhibition was held at the end of 10 years of the life and work of this enfant terrible of Italian fashion, who in this short period had left an indelible mark on the world which he so wanted to challenge, becoming himself a cult figure, and obtaining cult status for his clothes.

Moschino Acquired by Ferretti Group

Moschino passed away on September 1994 from AIDs. His staff, under the leadership of his closest collaborator, Rossella Jardini, have continued his work and succeeded in the miracle of consolidating the success of the brand. In 1995, the city of Florence granted Franco Moschino the Pitti Immagine Award. Later, in June 1999, for the first collection of Moschino Life, presented a new version of the famous “survival jacket”, designed in 1991. Later in Fall, the brand was taken over by the Ferretti Group. In the following years, many exhibitions took place, always praising Franco and his professional life. In March 2001 the brand presented a chronological collection of images of the windows designed by the charismatic “monellaccio” (rascal). Two years later, during summer, some paintings that Franco Moschino made in 1989 were exhibited for the first time in Rome.


In 2002 the brand released the memorable “On the road” men’s collection, combining vintage pieces with sports and formalwear. This was a paradoxical look, covering every possibility, and contradicted everything with which we were familiar. The collection was ingeniously invented; the disorder was delightful. The same approach was taken for the womenswear collections in the cheeky 2003-2004 fall/winter show, which saw a complete mechanic’s overall decorated with frills, and a necklace made out of a metal spring-catch.

Moschino Fall/Winter 2003 Collection
Fall/Winter 2003 Collection

Prêt-à-jouer will always be the way for Moschino. The range continues to produce the thousand anomalies which continue, as in the past, to turn some items into genuine status symbols. Irony and unbridled fantasy go hand-in-hand, particularly in the Cheap & Chic diffusion line. One style, many styles, for those with more enthusiasm than money. Fashion as the art of putting an outfit together in total freedom. Blazers with no buttons which fasten with a safety-pin, or sprinkles of sequins on patched pants.

Brand Development

Later in May the company entered a joint venture with Bluebell Far East (49.9%), Moschino (50.1%) created Moschino Far East, to aid distribution in the Far Eastern market, including Japan. Sales of €70 million were envisaged by 2006. This is an agreement that seals the long collaboration between these two businesses: Bluebell has been distributor for Moschino in the East since 1989, apart from in Japan, where distribution has been managed until now by Sanki Shoji.

Moschino 2001 SS CampaignMame Fashion Dictionary: Moschino 2001 SS Campaign
2001 Spring/Summer Campaign

Then in July, they signed a licensing contract with Sector to produce a collection of watches under the name of Moschino. The Sector Group, with 15 production partners worldwide, had 150 employees and sales of around €90 million in 2001. It was responsible for around 14% of watchmaking in Italy.

In 2002 the label celebrated its 20th birthday. The first Parisian store (with seven windows) was opened at 32 Rue de Grenelle, in the 7th arrondissement, and a shop was opened in central Moscow, in the Petrovsky Passage Mall. The Moschino brand has a distribution network of 24 dedicated stores, and 31 franchises in department stores. Shares in Moschino Spa are held 70% by Aeffe and 30% by Sportswear International, and in 2001 sales equaled €285 million.


In July 2003 they launched a store in the Rome full of the new Moschino watches, the heart-shaped “Time 4 love” and “Time 4 Peace.” Each has charms representing symbols of peace, love, a lucky horn, and the initial “M” of the late designer. “I love 4 ways” has a linked chain, inspired by old pocket watches. “I love Moschino” has a leather strap, and “My name is Moschino” a traditional metal strap.

Moschino Watches
Moschino Watches

A year later, Vincent Darré, head of creation and development of the Moschino collection from 2001 to 2004 left the label to become artistic director at Emanuel Ungaro.

Official Partners

In 2007, under the leadership of Thierry Andreatta (CEO from 2007 to 2009), Moschino opened a new boutique in New Dehli, India, where it first expanded in 2005. In May, the first headquarters in Eastern Europe was opened in Lithuania.

In 2007 important agreements were concluded with several partners. Including Scienward International Holdings Limited for the franchise and distribution in China, Allison for creating and distributing Moschino’s eyewear, Binda Group for the manufacture and marketing of watches and jewelry. In 2008 the teen and baby collections were launched too. 

The same year, in collaboration with Independent Ideas, Lapo Elkan’s communications agency, Moschino presented Love Moschino collection, a new face for the twenty-year Moschino Jeans collection. The strategy was to renew it, making it more appealing for new generations.

In March 2008, the new fragrance Hippy Fizz was launched in the market, produced and distributed by Euroitalia. Then, in September, the boutique of New York was opened. Also, in 2009 stores were opened in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Shanghai. Then a year later in Vietnam. At this point, Moschino’s expansion now reached every corner of the world.

Moschino Spring/Summer 2010 Collection
Spring/Summer 2010 Collection

The original interest of Franco Moschino towards modernity has remained at the center of the company. In 2010, under the supervision of Rossella Jardini, in collaboration with Jo Ann Tan, Maison Moschino was inaugurated in Milan, now NH Milano Palazzo Moscova. Moschino represents a fairytale world where fashion is a means to celebrate the values and the joy of living.

Supporting Charity

Active in the social, Moschino signed numerous collaborations to help children and associations. In 2007, Moschino supported Amref by selling some of its design on Yoox. In the same year, Unicef asked the brand to make a plexi doll for fundraising for the prevention and care of children with HIV. The following year, in collaboration with the Isetan Shinjuku Department Store in Tokyo, Moschino presented a series of mini dresses from the spring/summer 2008 collection, whose proceeds were donated to the Red Cross of Tokyo to support children.

Jeremy Scott

Jeremy Scott Creative Director of Moschino
Jeremy Scott Creative Director of Moschino

In 2014 the brand started to relaunch, with the appointment of the new creative director, Jeremy Scott. Scott was born in 1974 in Missouri, USA, and studied at the Pratt Institute in New York. In 1990 he launched his own line with a fashion show in Paris. Scott’s brand has a very sophisticated pop style, using very bright colors, lettering, symbols and icons taken revisited from the eighties and nineties. The sporty style helped the designer to forge several partnerships with activewear brands as Adidas.

The company appointed Scott after Rossella Jardini, former Moschino creative director,  presented her last collection collection for the Italian fashion house during Milan Fashion Week. Jeremy Scott has been noted in recent years also for a very direct communication on social networks, where he posted accessories and extravagant clothes. Also, his friendship with international pop stars like Rihanna, Nicki Minaj and Katy Perry, who began to wear his clothes at concerts and public appearances, thus increased his fame.

Jeremy Scott With Celebrities Wearing Moschino Collection
Jeremy Scott With Celebrities Wearing Moschino Collection

In February 2014 the first collection by Jeremy Scott was presented, inspired by some American icons, including McDonald’s. Someone criticized the choice, others appreciated. Another novelty is the elimination of Cheap & Chic line and the birth of the “Boutique Moschino” line. The brand announced that the “Moschino Boutique” line targets a wider market and that prices will be about 40% lower than the main line.

Moschino Jeremy Scott 2014
Jeremy Scott Collection for Moschino 2014

The first positive results of the new course of Moschino contributed to Aeffe sales results, which acquired the brand in 1999. There were in fact revenues of €251.5 million, an increase of 0.2% compared to last year. Also, the sale of the Spring/Summer 2015 collections has increased by 15% from a year earlier. Then, in 2015 Jeremy Scott wins the “Womenswear Designer of the Year”.

At the same year, Moschino and Barbie teamed up for a partnership, produced a Moschino Barbie doll and 8 pieces Moschino ready-to-wear collection. Then, during 2016 spring summer fashion week, Moschino launched a new capsule collection called “Clothed For Construction.” This capsule collection is also designed by Jeremy Scott and only available on online.

Moschino Barbie Spring/Summer 2015 Collection
Barbie Spring/Summer 2015 Collection

Current Situation

In July 2017 Moschino launched a limited makeup collection by collaborating with Sephora. This collaboration bring out the best combination of beauty products and luxe accessories. The brand’s signature playfulness together with Sephora’s high quality beauty products served both bold Moschino women and everyone else.

Moschino Limited Makeup Collection
Moschino Limited Makeup Collection


Emilio Pucci is an Italian Designer from Naples. He launched his brand, Pucci in 1947 and it became famous for geometric prints full of color.


  1. The Origin
  2. Pucci Prints
  3. The Success
    1. First Catwalk
    2. Neiman Marcus Fashion Oscar
    3. Emilioform
    4. First Haute Couture Collection
  4. Collaborations
  5. Laudomia Pucci
  6. Pucci Acquired by LVMH
  7. Christian Lacroix
  8. 60th Anniversary
  9. Exhibitions and Events
  10. Creative Director: Massimo Giorgetti
  11. Current Situation

The Origin

Emilio Pucci Portrait in Office
Emilio Pucci Portrait in Office

Emilio Pucci (1914-1992) is an Italian designer who was born in Naples, but his father was of Russian extraction. After studying social sciences at the University of Athens in Georgia, and then in Portland, Oregon, he signed up as an officer in the Italian Air Force in 1938. Having continued his studies with a Doctorate in political sciences at Florence University, he fought courageously in World War II.

His introduction to fashion came about quite by chance in 1947 amidst the snow of Zermatt, where he was training with the Olympic ski team. Toni Frissel, a well-known photographer for Harper’s Bazaar, immortalized Pucci in a shot with a female friend for whom he had improvised a ski outfit.

Emilio Pucci Improvising a Ski Outfit 1947
Emilio Pucci Improvising a Ski Outfit 1947

A year later Pucci’s first collection of sportswear appeared on the cover of the same magazine. His outfits were bought up immediately by the department store Lord and Taylor, and were given the label “Emilio” in the USA. The American market welcomed Pucci’s comfortable and practical fashion.

Pucci Prints

Emilio Pucci Prints
Pucci Prints

Emilio Pucci is highly influenced by Sicilian mosaics, heraldic banners, Bali Batiks, and African motifs. Therefore, he invented a unique style, recognizable for its printed textiles, first stylized, then geometric. Also, for his incredible use of color, which brought together shades in unforeseen combinations. His prints were designed to be shown off at their best when seen in motion on Pucci’s dynamically cut dresses.

The Success

Emilio Pucci 1949 Beachwear Collection
1949 Beachwear Collection in Capri

In 1949, he launched his first beachwear collection in Capri, based on black and white prints created by Guido Ravasi of Como. The collection was a success, so in 1950 Pucci decided to open a boutique on the Canzone del Mare at Marina Piccola. His clothes were cut and assembled in the family home in Florence, where he had set up a small workshop in order to cope with the influx of requests.

First Catwalk

Emilio Pucci Runway at London 1957
1957 Runway Collection at London

In 1951 his designs appeared in his first Italian runway show, organized by Giovanni Battista Giorgini at Villa Torrrigiani on Via Serragli, Florence. The show was attended by America’s most important buyers. From then on, Pucci would be present at every Florentine fashion show until 1967, the year in which he began to show in his own building on Via dei Pucci. In 1953, his palette of colors became suddenly more daring, printed on shirts, pants, scarves, and dresses in jersey, silk, and synthetic fibers.

Neiman Marcus Fashion Oscar

This range was big news on the international fashion stage, and won Pucci the 1954 Neiman Marcus Fashion Oscar for best designer of the year. Among his most famous were his Sicilian collection of 1956, inspired by the Sienese Palio in 1956, and his Botticelli collection of 1959.


From the very beginning of his fashion career, Pucci was interested in experimenting with materials. In 1953, with Legler, he produced synthetic velvets for sports pants, and in the same year he worked with cotton producers Valle Susa to create printed wally pliss. In 1954 Pucci made famous a new jersey for the production of lightweight, crease-proof clothing.

Emilio Pucci Emilioform

This was produced by Mabu of Solbiate and Boselli of Como, and made out of very fine silk organza. In 1960 he patented a light, comfortable elastic fabric called emilioform composed of Helanca synthetic and shantung silk. From this Pucci produced his Viva ski-pants and his famous outer-space style Capsule.

First Haute Couture Collection

In 1962, having become increasingly influenced by the Orient, he produced his first haute couture collection. This was notable for its rich fabrics and the workmanship of the embroidery, which included Swarovski crystals attached by hand to the palazzo pants which were already so much in vogue by that time.

Emilio Pucci 1967 Campaign
1967 Campaign


In 1966 the first Pucci fragrance, Vivara was launched, followed by Miss Zadig in 1974 and Pucci in 1977. Meanwhile in 1968 he had become involved in the creation of menswear, having signed an agreement with Ermenegildo Zegna. Having invented the “total look” ahead of time, Pucci had signed licenses on all sorts of accessories and other items; from lingerie for Formit, to porcelain with Rosenthal; from rugs for Dandolo Argentini to Parker pens. In 1971 he even designed the emblem for NASA’s Apollo 25 space mission. His clothes were sold in no fewer than 51 countries.

Laudomia Pucci

Emilio Pucci With His Daughter Laudomia
Emilio Pucci With His Daughter Laudomia

In 1980, Pucci’s daughter Laudomia joined his design team, and in 1992 took over her father’s business when he passed away. In the early 2000s the movie Isn’t She Great? is released in which the famous American writer Jacqueline Susann, played by Bette Midler, is such a Pucci fanatic that she even has “Emilio” curtains in her pink study. She wears Pucci from head to toe, and even has a dog called Pucci Poo. The fashion world cannot ignore Puccimania. Katell Le Bourhis, adviser to Bernard Arnault and responsible for the dress collection at the Metropolitan Museum, visited the archives at Palazzo Pucci and was struck by the profound influence of “Emilio.”

Pucci Acquired by LVMH

In April, Cristina and Laudomia Pucci di Barsento — owners of the prêt-à-porter label Emilio Pucci, signed an agreement with LVMH, which acquired 67% of the business. Arnault had listened to Le Bourhis’s advice. The Managing Director of LVMH was the young Catherine Vautrin, who had been on the board since 1998. Laudomia Pucci continues to co-ordinate design and brand policy, whilst the production side of the business is incorporated into the Fashion and Leather division of the Arnault Group, chaired by Yves Carcelle.

Christian Lacroix

In April 2002 Christian Lacroix was appointed Artistic Director of Emilio Pucci. Nobody, possibly, other than the “arlésien” with his Mediterranean spirit, could better take on the legacy of the “Prince of Prints.” Thanks to Lacroix, the shades and combinations of colors of the fashion of an innovative and gifted artist live on. Pucci’s exuberant, optimistic and at the same time highly glamorous vision of life was to be seen both in his ready-to-wear and beachwear collections.

Emilio Pucci Christian Lacroix Spring/Summer 2006
Christian Lacroix Spring/Summer 2006 Collection

Matthew Williamson includes the prints that made Emilio Pucci famous during the ’50s and ’60s in spring summer 2006 collection. He reinterprets them in a modern key on shorter dresses, with more sharp and geometric lines. In the same year, the House of Emilio Pucci works with Omas to create a ballpoint pen in three limited versions, creating an elegant perfect pen for writing thanks to the fantasies created by the Maison.

60th Anniversary

In 2007, the Maison celebrates sixty years and hundred years from the designer’s birth: that year the House launches an ephemeral makeup collection resulting from a partnership with Guerlain, and a new version of  the Vivara fragrance, originally created in 1964. A year later, the brand opens an online store.

Emilio Pucci Peter Dundas 2011 Fall/Winter Collection
Peter Dundas 2011 Fall/Winter Collection

In 2009 Matthew Williamson leaves Pucci and Peter Dundas becomes creative director. His style is recognizable from cuts, colors, details and prints enhancing the female silhouette. Later, in 2013 new boutiques opens in Italy and the House plans to open boutiques globally in the fashion capitals. After the ownership of LVMH, Pucci has plans to step out to seek and join the “big boys club” of the luxury apparel labels.

Exhibitions and Events

From April 5 to July 27, 2014, the Victoria & Albert Museum in London organizes an exhibition on the birth of Italian fashion brands, also celebrating the case of Emilio Pucci. The Maison also participated to a LuisaViaRoma and Adidas charity project, customizing the FIFA ball for the World Cup.

In 2014, during Pitti Immagine Uomo, Vogue Italy organizes an event to celebrate Italians designers from Florence, where the name of Emilio Pucci is celebrated with photo shoots from the Vogue Italy archives. Moreover, Emilio Pucci creates the installation “Monumental Pucci”, featuring an iconic print depicting the Baptistery of Florence.

Creative Director: Massimo Giorgetti

In April of 2015 Massimo Giorgetti is named creative director of the brand. He is the young and talented founder of the brand MSGM. He was elected creative director of the fashion house to create a new future for the brand, a pop soul of a tradition of quality.

Emilio Pucci Massimo Giorgetti 2016 Spring/Summer Collection
Massimo Giorgetti 2016 Spring/Summer Collection

On the occasion of the earthquake in central Italy of 24 August 2016, the celebrities come together to support those affected by the disaster. The event “Support from Fashion”, in support of the citizens of Amatrice, is organized in Florence. Pucci and other designers put some of their creations for auction to donate the proceeds to the earthquake victims. Always in 2016, Emilio Pucci and Illy come together to create a collection of coffee cups. The objects of design are part of the Illy Art Collection series, which includes hand-drawn exclusive prints, depicting landscapes dedicated to Florence, Milan, and New York.

Current Situation

Emilio Pucci Boutique in Seoul, Korea
Boutique in Seoul, Korea

In April 2017, to tribute the 50th year of Componibili designed by Anna Castelli Ferrieri in 1967, Pucci started a collaboration with Cartel. Together they designed a special version of this iconic storage modules by using brand’s archive print “Campanule” which fully represent the spirit of Emilio Pucci.

At the same time, to strengthen brand’s presence in Asia market,  the company opened a new boutique in Korea, located at the Galleria East Luxury Hall in Seoul. With the new opening Emilio Pucci now has a consolidated presence in Asia, operates in major cities like Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Tokyo, and Beijing. In addition, Pucci is presented all over the world in more than 50 countries, also offering its product through its online flagship Brand’s distribution network extends to the world’s most relevant fashion capitals including Milan, New York, Rome, Paris and London, as well as luxury resort destinations such as Portofino and Saint Tropez.


Celine, began in 1945 as a made-to-measure children’s shoe business and evolved into a French house of luxury leather goods and prêt-à-porter.


  1. The Origin: Céline Vipiana
  2. Acquired By LVMH
  3. Michael Kors
  4. The Poulbot Bag
  5. A Hard Time
  6. Phoebe Philo
  7. Current Situation

The Origin: Céline Vipiana

Céline has a long and deep-rooted history in the world of fashion. The first boutique was opened by Céline Vipiana and her husband, Richard at 52 rue Malte in Paris. Together they created one of the first luxury brands in the industry, Céline, a made-to-measure children’s shoe business. Then, year after year, the maison’s success allowed it to expand. Céline Vipiana remained the designer from 1945-1997.

Céline Vipiana
Céline Vipiana Portrait in Office

In 1960, the brand changed positioning and began focusing on a women’s ready-to-wear fashion brand with a sportswear approach. In 1963 it presented a women’s shoe line, and 1966 saw the début of a leather collection. In 1973, Céline redesigned its logo with the intertwined “C” Sulky canvas, linked to the Parisian symbol, Arc-de-Triomphe.

Acquired by LVMH

In 1996 the brand was officially acquired by LVMH, Bernard Arnault, which owned several luxury and fashion brands, for $540 million. At this time, LVMH made the brand popular and opened a boutique on 36 avenue Montaigne in Paris.

The firm, guided by Nan Lergeai, the person at Dior responsible for the Far East, began a policy of opening single-brand boutiques all over the world, with particular attention to the Asian and American markets.

Michael Kors

In 1997 American fashion designer Michael Kors was named the first ever women’s ready-to-wear designer and creative director for Céline. After he was hired, the brand quickly evolved, and in May 2001 the company opened their first single-brand boutique in London, at the prime address New Bond Street. Then, in August the Isetan Museum in Tokyo dedicates a retrospective to Céline illustrating the maison’s style from 1945 to the present day, highlighting the changes made in 1997 with the arrival of artistic director Michael Kors.

Celine Micheal Kors Spring/Summer 2001
Micheal Kors Spring/Summer 2001 Collection

The celebrated Grant bag, very successful in the 1960s, is the main feature, and it is sewn right in front of visitors in a miniature cardboard version. The pieces on sale are limited and numbered, personalized with the buyer’s name.

In September 2001 with the advent of the single European currency, Céline creates a dedication to the euro with a collection of accessories decorated with the twelve coins which are to be issued. After London and Antwerp, Club Céline arrives in Italy, in the new boutique opened in Galleria Cavour in Bologna. The firm expects to open 100 more points-of-sale by the end of the year.

The Poulbot Bag

Celine Poulbot Bag Grey
Poulbot Bag Grey

In May 2003 the new Céline bag is called Poulbot. This name is almost unknown, and derives from Francisque Poulbot, an contemporary artist with Toulouse-Lautrec, by whom he was inspired when painting the street urchins of Paris. Since that time, poulbot has meant urchin, and the bag is called an “urchin” or “rascal” bag. It hangs like a shoulder bag, bombé and round with seams held together by metallic rivets, made in leather of bright colors such as orange, fuchsia, and electric blue.

Also, Céline offers a mini-Collection inspired by the streets of Paris. The name chosen for the collection, Macadam, is the name of the paving material put down in 1854, an important element in the stylistic identity of the city. The Collection is to last a single season. By this time, Céline has seen a lot of growth and now has 63 boutiques all over the world.

A Hard Time

October 2004 Roberto Menichetti makes his début in Paris as the creative director of Céline. He replaces the American Michael Kors as the artistic head of the historic French maison. By May 2005, after only two seasons, the collaboration between the Italian designer and the French maison comes to an end. The separation is consensual.

Céline Opens First Store in Florence
Céline Opens First Store in Florence

Later in June, after the opening of the boutique on via Condotti in Rome in 2004, another prestigious store is opened on the very central via Tornabuoni in Florence. It is a nice way to celebrate the griffe‘s 66th anniversary. In the previous four years, the griffe shows a growth in turnover of 50%.

A year later, the Croatian designer, Ivana Omazic, was appointed director of the design studio. He was a former consultant for the brand and previously worked with Prada, Jil Sander and Miu Miu. Omazic designed for Céline until 2008, after further disappointments for the brand.

Phoebe Philo

On September 4, 2008 the LVMH Group names Phoebe Philo as the new creative director and board member of the brand. The designer incorporates her own twist to the brand by drawing attention to the tailoring and materials. Vogue defined the new aesthetic look she brought to the brand as the “cool minimal trend”.

Celine Phoebe Philo SS15
Phoebe Philo SS15 Collection

In 2014, the brand is at its peak, when the House opens new flagship stores in Mount Street (London), Avenue Montaigne (Paris), Omotesando (Tokyo), SoHo (New York) and Plaza 66 (Shanghai). At end of 2014, Céline completely renovated its new headquarters at 16 Rue Vivienne, a historical building which was built in 1653. The building is on the national heritage list, originally owned by King Louis XIII and positioned in the heart of Paris.

In 2015, in order to be faithful to the minimalist spirit of Céline, the brand chose one of the legendary American author Joan Didion to be the face of SS15 campaign.

Current Situation

Celine SS17 Collection
SS17 Collection

The year 2017 has undergone many changes for Céline,  in the beginning of this year, Séverine Merle joined Céline as new CEO. Later in February, the brand finally launched an official Instagram account to strengthen its social media presence.

The official Céline website is one of few fashion website without e-commerce capabilities, but there is no doubt that online sales have become the fashion industry’s most important and promising engine of growth, therefore, on 27th of February, Céline announced plans to launch e-commerce.

In August, Céline entered Indian market for the first time by signing an exclusive partnership with Le Mill, a concept store in Mumbai. Also, after holding the position of creative director in the house for 8 years, Phoebe Philo is preparing to depart from Céline by the end of 2017.


Borbonese remains as an Italian luxury brand which constantly cultivate its perspective to meet the needs of nowadays’ contemporary society. Borbonese is an established “Made In Italy” player who values its rich heritage and tradition, craftsmanship, and always strive for perfection.


  1. The Origin: Lucia Lorenzo Ginestrone
  2. Collaboration With Luxury Fashion Houses
  3. Distinctive Elements
  4. Borbonese Acquired By Van Cleef & Arpels
  5. 100th Anniversary
  6. Current Situation

The Origin: Lucia Lorenzoni Ginestrone

Borbonese started as a humble workshop that produced jewels, accessories from ribbons to bows, gloves to hats, and shawls. The company supplied the most prestigious tailors in Turin, a city that was, at the time, very aware of couture and a small Italian capital of fashion. In 1910 Lucia Lorenzoni Ginestrone, an established milliner, took over the workshop and Borbonese was born.

Borbonese 1910 Purse Sketch
Purse Sketch from 1910

Later in 1950, thanks to the help of Lucia’s son, Umberto Borbonese Ginestrone, along with his friend Edoardo Calagno, they worked to help run the family business. Borbonese successfully developed an eclectic and sophisticated aesthetics in creating jewellery made of innovative forms and peculiar materials.

Collaboration With Luxury Fashion Houses

Through 1960 Borbonese became highly influencing and gained trust from various luxury fashion houses to create numerous accessories to complement their collections. It was the creation of jewellery combined with great imagination and exquisite workmanship that made the brand so popular. The ability of the company to establish a harmonious connection between clothing and jewellery is why the most important fashion houses want to work with it. Among the most prestigious fashion houses were Fendi, Valentino, Ungaro, Galitzine and Yves Saint Laurent, who appreciated the inspiration, experimentation and beauty of its costume jewellery.

Distinctive Elements

Borbonese Iconic Occhio di Pernice
Iconic Occhio di Pernice – Partridge Eye Print

During the 1970s, Borbonese began the partnership with the Bologna-based expert in leathergoods, Redwall, owned by Rossi family. This well-grounded collaboration brought a revolutionary line of high quality leather bags which combine light, unlined and restructured forms with a unique softness and resistance. At this point, the firm found their distinctive element of its griffe in a new material that was soft like lamb skin. With colors in a beige or honey color, and treated to reveal a “partridge-eye” dot effect, in bags, cases and a wide range of leather goods. Also, some of their items are manufactured with plasticized fabric, and those showing a dot effect called “graffiti,” in beige, very dark brown, blue, light blue, and black. It was the birth of the iconic O.P. or Occhio di Pernice (Eye of Partridge).

Borbonese Luna Bag
Luna Bag

Borbonese launched its infamous bag Luna to commemorate the landing of the first man on the moon, followed by Sexy, Tango, and Mambo which remains as a cult classic until today. Borbonese is the pioneer to affix its logo on zippers along with the distinctive rivet which become an everlasting signs of the brand. Much imitated, but never equalled, Borbonese bags are light, practical, always elegant, and now a classic. The most acclaimed photographers during this era, including Giampaolo Barbieri, Helmut Newton, and Satoshi Saikusa contributed for Borbonese’s advertising campaigns.

Starting from 1980s, Borbonese invented an actual lifestyle and became one of the most notable Italian brand by expanding its production of ready-to-wear, accessories for both men and women, footwear, fur products, and sophisticated line of home furnishings to confirm the brand’s status in the luxury industry that creates a true style of Global Living.

In 1992 the Sexy Bag celebrates its 20th birthday. At the big party in Tokyo, it is presented in a limited edition of 100 pieces with accessories in 18-carat gold. A year later, after twenty years of working together, Redwall, which operates in the same field of bags and leather accessories, takes over the brand. Then, in 1999 the first Borbonese women’s prêt-à-porter Collection produced by Redwall is presented for the Autumn-Winter season in Milan. On March 27th of that same year the French-American family Arpels, current owner of 20% of Van Cleef & Arpels, acquires 50% of the company. That same day at a shareholders’ meeting the corporate name is changed to Rossi 1924 Spa.In September 2000 a line of women’s wear is added to the accessories Collection.

Borbonese Acquired by Van Cleef & Arpels

The year 2001 ends with a break even and a turnover of €21 million. In 2002 the brand appoints creative director, Alessandro Dell’Acqua. She designs a line of women’s clothing that is presented during Milano Moda Donna and meant to accompany the accessories line.

Officially in November, Arpels purchases the remaining 50% of the company, acquiring the shares owned Dario Rossi and Alberto Vacchi. Claude Julien Arpels becomes managing director, while Alberto Vacchi remains on the board of directors. For 2004, the Arpels family considers making a strong effort in the North American and Far East markets.

Borbonese SS10 Milan Fashion Week
SS10 Milan Fashion Week

In 2009 Borbonese presented the Spring/Summer 2010 collection during Milan Fashion Week in the via della Spiga store. This was a successful event in collaboration with contemporary artist Amedeo Martegani, who transformed the boutique’s windows into a theatre and formed the perfect scenographic backdrop which tell a story of seven Samurai, inspired by the sharp cutting that creates the form of O.P. bag. Accompanied by the sound of sabers, slashing knives, and metal sound by musician Giuseppe Ielasi, the installation really caught the attention and created a novel ambience throughout the store.

100th Anniversary

Borbonese 100 Year Anniversary Art BagsMame Fashion Dictionary: Borbonese 100 Year Anniversary Art Bags
100 Year Anniversary “Art Bags”

In 2010 to celebrate 100 years of Borbonese, the brand initiated a special project in collaboration with Roy Lichtenstein Foundation to create the Art Bags, a limited collection consists of twelve bags that reproduce some of the pop artists masterpieces. This exclusive collection was exhibited at Triennale, Milan. Also, Borbonese 1910 was launched, a collection of iconic Borbonese bags dedicated in honour of the centenary celebration under the creative direction of Gabriele Colangelo, a talented young Italian fashion designer with an innate propensity for craft fur and embroidery.

Borbonese Fall/Winter 2012
Fall/Winter 2012 Collection

In 2013 a red sealing-wax Borbonese logo became a distinguished symbol that introduces a new direction of the company. It’s a decision to stay focus on the core business of the brand, creating impeccable collection of bags and accessories, derive from never-ending research into new materials and techniques that make every product unique and special. Iconic bags of Borbonese were reinterpreted by using new combination of leather and metal-crafting techniques to give a modern and contemporary impression.

In September 2015 at Milan Fashion Week, Borbonese launched a new book titled “Inspirations” edited by Ginevra Elkann and published by Rizzoli in its headquarter on Via Monte di Pietà. In this book, Borbonese poetically and imaginatively presented to the audience of how the brand always took artistic inspirations from nature, which has characterised in the production and its signature Italian craftsmanship.

Borbonese Inspirations Book
A Page in the Borbonese Inspirations Book

Later, in November the brand became the sponsor of the Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli in Turin for the exhibition featuring American pop artist, Ed Ruscha titled “Mix Master” curated by Paolo Colombo. This exhibition consisted of photography, painting, and books by Ed Ruscha which tell a story about the transformation of American life over the past half-century.

Current Situation

In 2016 Borbonese sponsored the exhibition titled “Riflessioni / Reflections” featuring Rosemarie Trockel and the Turin collections. Also, in September they opened their new flagship store in Corso Matteotti 8, presenting a new concept that reinforces the brand’s image in Italy. 

Borbonese Global Living at Milan Design Week 2016
Global Living at Milan Design Week 2016

In April 2017, Borbonese made significant investment on its Global Living collection and presented a new home collection, as well as furnitures during Milan Design Week. And in order to reinforce Borbonese’s logo, all the structures of products are designed with round lines. Later in September, Borbonese launched a new footwear collection for both men and women, and presented its spring/summer 2018 footwear collection during international footwear show.

Borbonese remains as an Italian luxury brand which constantly cultivate its perspective to meet the needs of todays contemporary society. Borbonese is an established Made In Italy brand that values its rich heritage and tradition, craftsmanship, and always strive for perfection. Never ending research for the latest technology and being innovative, Borbonese always combine precious materials and refined techniques with masterly crafting to emphasise details and characteristics of each unique product. Borbonese is “The New Spirit of Tradition”.


French luxury goods company started by Christian Dior in 1946. Responsible for the New Look and bringing back Femininity.


  1. The Origin: Christian Dior
  2. Designer at Piguet and Lucien Lelong
  3. The Beginning: Dior Maison
    1. The New Look
    2. Avenue Montaigne
  4. Dior is Dior: A Splendid Atelier
  5. New Designer: Yves Saint Laurent
  6. New Leadership: Bernard Arnault
  7. Financial Information
  8. 100 Year Celebration of Christian Dior’s Birthday
  9. Brand Development 
  10. Creative Director
    1. John Galliano Fired
    2. RAF Simons 
    3. Maria Grazia Chiuri
  11. Current Situation 

The Origin: Christian Dior

Christian Dior (1905-1957). A tailor and a designer who was among the most important figures in all of French haute couture.  Dior was born in Gramville, in northwestern France. He had a happy childhood in Paris, as well as on holiday in Normandy, in which he was free to abandon himself to his genius for drawing and to a real talent in making costumes for carnival and for informal parties at home.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Portrait
Christian Dior Portrait

He already had a definite instinct for art and for the joy of living. He had a clear calling for artistic creation, supported by constant visits to museums and galleries, would emerge only later. After interrupting his university studies in political science, and having put aside the idea of a diplomatic career, which was desired for him by his parents, he started a partnership with his friend Jean Bonjean, the owner of an art gallery in Paris. In this art gallery there where the main figures of the various avant-guards of the 20th century exhibited their works.

Designer at Piguet and Lucien Lelong

But his mother’s death and the bankruptcy of his father’s business changed his life, making his tormented youth the exact opposite of his happy childhood. In 1934, he fell seriously ill with tuberculosis. After a year of recovery in Spain, he went back to Paris and began to work on the fashion section of the weekly Le Figaro Illustré. He designed hats and began to sell sketches of clothing and accessories to several fashion houses. This lean period lasted 7 years, until 1938, when he found a steady job as a clothing designer at the maison Piguet. One of his first successes was a very full skirt that could be worn even in the daytime.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Designer for Robert Piuget
Cafe Anglaise Collection Dior. Last and most successful collection for Piuget

Then, the outbreak of World War II and his service with the army engineers put a stop to everything. The signing of the armistice found him in the south of France where, in his father’s house, he would spend a year and a half enjoying nature and the simple life of a village. Only the insistence of his friends convinced him to return to Paris, in 1941. His place at Piguet wasn’t there waiting for him, but he did join the maison of Lucien Lelong, where Balmain also worked as an assistant. There, for many seasons, he would design the collections, creating very tight skirts as well as flared skirts, bringing success not only to Lelong, but to himself as well, because he became the head dress designer.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Sketch for Lucien Lelong 1944-45
Christian Dior Sketch for Lucien Lelong 1944-45

The Beginning: Dior Maison  

By now, he felt ready to manage a maison of his own and knew he could count on an innate talent for business. It was 1946, the year of his partnership with Boussac, who financed him with the considerable sum, for the time, of 60 million francs. In this adventure he was joined by some of Lelong’s key people, such as Raymonde Zehnacker, Marguerite Carré, and Mitza Bricard. A young Pierre Cardin was hired as cutter. His team went to work immediately, in the building on Avenue Montaigne.

The New Look

In the collective memory, he is linked to the New Look, which, on February 12th 1947, made him famous in one day. It was his first Collection. After the morning presentation, he was pushed out on the balcony of his atelier at Avenue Montaigne 30 to salute a crowd of applauding women. The Paris newspapers were on strike, and so the explosion set off by Dior was felt first in America, where Carmel Snow, the director of Harper’s Bazaar said, “It’s a new look.”

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior New Look 1946
New Look 1946

The women’s collection, offered in the Corolla line, later called the New Look, was extremely new in its accentuated femininity, but with an antique touch: a very tiny waist (the corset and girdle were back, like a sudden jump into the past), high breasts, small shoulders, and long, full skirts with tulle petticoats to increase the bulk. It was a look backwards compared to the liberated body of Poiret and the one caressed by Chanel. It was a return to an aristocratic elegance, and also to a battle of hems, from Collection to Collection.

Mame- Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior New Look 1946
New Look 1946

Dior returned the fashion world back to femininity. He launched immense, long blossoming skirts, with waists squeezed by small bodice-jackets, made half the women in Europe dream and tremble with trepidation. His intuition was striking, but the event which really decided his future was a meeting with Marcel Boussac. The French textile entrepreneur had everything to gain from a lifting of the wartime restrictions on fabrics, and each of Dior’s swaying skirts consumed more than 16 yards of fabric, while an evening dress took as much as 27 yards.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Evening Dress 1950s
Evening Dress 1950s

Avenue Montaigne

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Avenue Montaigne
Christian Dior Avenue Montaigne

Avenue Montaigne, an address which is still today considered magical and pivotal in the expansion and increase in places and regions of a charismatic empire, whose charm was always respectful of the furnishings and atmosphere chosen by Dior: Louis XV armchairs with the grey-and-white medallion that was a symbol of the maison on the back. Another motif associated with the maison was the lily of the valley, used with Dior’s first perfume, Diorissimo, in 1948, and later sprayed generously on the pearl grey fitted carpet in the days of Dior’s many presentations.

Dior is Dior: A Splendid Atelier

The object of both praise and invective, Dior had, by now, become Dior: a splendid atelier with a staff of 85 workers. He could change his style, and he did, naming many lines after letters of the alphabet, such as the H, A, and Y lines. He was able to revive the artisanal skills of the “petites mains,” and could amaze people with hard-to-figure-out technical devices which could make the cut of a garment crushproof.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior New Look 1949
New Look 1949

When Dior was awarded with the recognition of Neiman Marcus, received in America, the designer adjusted his approach to appeal to a more dynamic post-war woman. He lifted the skirts at the back (in 1948), cut soft jackets, and presented tapered skirts (in 1949), making them shorter the following year, matching them with sack-shaped jackets with a horseshoe neck. In 1954 the silhouette became softer, waists were no longer squeezed in an H-line, and a love-hate relationship with the sack dress was about to begin.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior And Models 1950
25th April 1950: Christian Dior, designer of the ‘New Look’ and the ‘A-line’, with six of his models after a fashion parade at the Savoy Hotel, London.

In 1955 came the A line and the Y line, with the dominating motifs the large V necks and dresses matched with immense stoles. In that same year his pursuit of the caftan had a marked effect on fashion, with a delicate high-waist dress in chiffon and a sheath dress as tight as a corset. From perfumes to prêt-à-porter, from accessories to underwear, with licenses and new boutiques in Latin America and Cuba, Dior seemed to want to put every possible avenue of distribution under his own name in order to guarantee its long life.

He launched stiletto heels and excelled in the attention given to accessories such as hats, gloves, and jewellery.

New designer: Yves Saint Laurent

In 1957, the maison presented Dior’s last Collection, a variation on the theme of the vareuse, a kind of blouse with buttoned flap pockets that falls loosely at the sides and is often worn with a khaki bush jacket. Christian Dior passed away in the Summer of 1957 in Montecatini. He became an immortal, and one of the most admired haute couture empires in the world became a legend.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior Yves Saint Laurent 1958 Collection
Yves Saint Laurent 1958 Collection for Dior

The 1958 Collection would be designed by Yves Saint-Laurent, who three years before had become Dior’s assistant and heir. The Collection was called Trapezium and it was a triumph. Called for military service in 1960, Saint-Laurent would, on his return, create his own atelier, as his place at Dior had been taken by Marc Bohan, someone who, over thirty years, would express the spirit of the founder in a measured and creatively elegant way.

New Leadership: Bernard Arnault

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Bernard Arnault
Bernard Arnault

In 1988, a big retrospective at the Pavillon Marsan in the Musée des Arts de la Mode at the Louvre celebrated Dior and the new leadership of Bernard Arnault, the wizard of the luxury goods business. In that same year, the maison opened its first boutique in New York, as the number one French company in the U.S. did not yet have a point-of-sale in the Big Apple. The following year, Marc Bohan left. Then the Italian Gianfranco Ferré arrived.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Gianfranco Ferre for Dior 1996
Gianfranco Ferre for Dior 1996

In four annual collections of high fashion and prêt-à-porter, some of which were memorable, starting with revived images of early Dior and gradually emphasizing a timeless luxury that was daring and magic in its opulence. He developed a range of creativity suitable to both the present day and to the prestige of an illustrious maison, marked by the perfumes Dune and Dolce Vita. In more recent times, after Ferré’s return to Italy, the impeccable beauty typical of the griffe wasn’t always apparent in the Collections of John Galliano, who joined Dior as Creative Director in 1996, which were more prone to irony and excess than to the voluptuous grace of Dior’s perfection. Also, later in July 2000 the 32 year old French-Tunisian designer Hedi Slimane takes over the men’s prêt-à-porter from Patrick Lavoix.

Financial Information

By January 2002 Dior renews Sàfilo’s license to produce and distribute the eyeglass Collection manufactured by them since 1996 and which, in the following year, will also have a men’s line. The year 2001 closes with a deficit. Christian Dior SA Holding, owned 65% by Bernard Arnault, shows a loss of €95 million, on a 6% increase in sales, with revenues of €12.567 billion. The loss is attributed to reorganization costs of the retail operations and to investments needed to reorganize the U.S. business after September 11th. In 2000, the profit was €251 million.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Boutique Rome
Dior Boutique in Rome

In April 2002 Dior opens a shop in Rome, in one of the most evocative places in the city, the corner of via Condotti overlooking Piazza di Spagna. A small space is reserved for the jewellery designer Victoire de Castellane. Later, in June Hedi Slimane is nominated best designer of the year. The prize is given by the Council of Fashion Designers of America. By the end of 2002, the company shows a net profit of €178 million, against a loss of €95 million in 2001. The operating profit has increased 31%.

In March 2003 Vincenzo Moccia, 43, becomes director of Dior Italy, after having been director of Bulgari Italy and of Gucci for northern Italy. The Italian market has contributed a turnover of €492 million (an increase of 41%) and an operating profit of €33 million to Dior.

In Paris, the Dior woman surprises once again and is dressed in latex from head to toe. Galliano has designed the 2004 prêt-à-porter Collection for his usual crazy, sexy, and exaggerated woman, half geisha and half clown, part Japanese and part Chinese. There are skirts and miniskirts in feathered tulle, filmy and billowing, worn with long jackets; latex skirts that look like a second skin but are decorated with a thousand flowers; blouses that are tight on the hips, similar to mini-dresses and draped like a peplum, with bat-like sleeves; very tight trousers with laces that reach the waist; clouds of silk and chiffon; high heels; platform shoes 8 inches high with ankle laces and very thin strings sparkling with studs; colored fur coats; fake flower-patterned kimonos; and important and over-the-top op-art dresses with women covered up to the nose by a latex muzzle.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior John Galliano Paris Fashion Week Haute Couture 2009
John Galliano Paris Fashion Week Haute Couture 2009

Later in April, Sidney Toledano, the president of Christian Dior SA announced that 15 new boutiques will be opened worldwide in addition to the current 145. In 2002 there were 23 new boutiques, and in 2003 there were 15, part of 200 planned within 2007. In Paris, where there already are 15, a new mega-store is opened on Rue Royale.

100 Year Celebration of Christian Dior’s Birth

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Christian Dior 100 Years Show
Celebrating Christian Dior 100th Birthday Show

2005 marks the centennial celebration of Christian Dior’s birth. To celebrate the anniversary, the French Minister of Culture, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, opens the exhibit “L’Homme du Siècle” in Granville, in Dior’s childhood home, which is now a museum, Les Rumbs. The celebrations continue in Paris, during Fashion Week, with a show that covers Dior’s entire life, with history, the theater, his mother in an Edwardian-style dress, the little boy Christian in a sailor’s suit, and so on, until his success with the divas who visited his atelier. The show is “played” by today’s top models, and mentions his passion for dancing and Peru. Later in 2007, Hedi Slimane left the fashion house and Kris Van Assche replaced her as artistic director.

Brand Development

In april 2008 Sidney Toledano, president and CEO of Christian Dior Couture, announces the nomination of, Delphine Arnault Gancia, as general Vice Director of Christian Dior Couture. This year is characterized by the crisis that affected the entire world, but Sidney Toledano and John Galliano remain successful in having very high revenues, mostly due to the American market. They declare that accessories, woman’s ready-to-wear and Haute Couture increased the business. In 2008, Christian Dior Group records €8.2 billions of sales, gaining 11% compared to the previous year and a net income of €352 millions. All this is mostly due to the emergent markets China, Russia and Middle East.

In 2009, Dior launches the new advertising campaign for the Lady Dior bag, with the french actress Marion Cotillard as testimonial. Camille Miceli, nominated artistic director of costume jewellery and artistic advisor, enters the group and in this period, after nine years, the high jewellery and watches shop reopen in the french capital.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Marion Cotillard Lady Dior Campaign 2009
Marion Cotillard Lady Dior Campaign 2009

In 2010, Christian Dior and Safilo Group announces that their license agreement for design, world wide production and distribution of the Dior eyewear and sunglasses collection has been extended to december 31 2017. This year, the revenues amounts to €21.1 billion with an increase of 19% compared to 2009, due to the good performances in Europe, Asia and Usa. On these bases, Christian Dior announces the project of opening and renewal of boutiques on high potential markets.

Creative Director

John Galliano Fired

In 2011 after being house’s creative director for 15 years, John Galliano was fired by Dior because of making antisemitic and racist insults in a drunken rant. His Autumn/Winter 2011 fashion show went on during Paris Fashion Week without him. Also, during this period Pushkin museum of Moscow praises the maison Dior with the exhibition with the title of “Inspiration Dior”. The exhibition tells the story of the maison through the works of art that have inspired monsieur Christian Dior.

RAF Simons

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Raf Simons and his First Collection for Dior
Raf Simons First Collection for Dior

Later in 2012, Raf Simons was pointed as chief creative director. The Belgian designer, aged 44, will be responsible of the women Haute Couture collections, ready-to-wear and accessories. The french fashion house declares that Simons will project the style of the maison towards the 21°century, creating a real change. Shortly after the announcement of Raf Simons entry, his first collection of Haute Couture is presented in Paris. It was a collection in the tradition of the maison, revisited in a modern and architectural key, with his minimalist style and very far from the style of Galliano. The designer astounds with one of the best collections of the brand. A real selection of ideas from a designer with a rare gift: the ability of mixing modernity with history.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Raf Simons for Christian Dior
Raf Simons for Christian Dior Fall 2012

In 2012, Dior launch its first online magazine, called Diormag. The news on the website are updated daily with informations regarding the global activities of the griffe. After one year waiting, on april 9 2012 the Raf Simons era starts, as he is nominated the new artistic director of the maison. In 2013, maison Dior engages the actress Jennifer Laurence as testimonial of the advertising campaign for Miss Dior bag, with $20 million contract for three years.

After one year from Raf Simons entry in the french maison, Christian Dior Couture reveals that profits have increased of 31%, while incomes have grown of 14%. Such results are also due to the influence of Kris Van Assche, creative director of menswear department. In the meanwhile, Delphine Arnault Gancia, daughter of Bernard Arnault, head of LVMH group, announces her decision to give up her collaboration with the maison Dior to work exclusively for Louis Vuitton.

During an interview in 2014, Sidney Toledano confirms that their success came from the very high quality of their production, exalting Made in Italy and promoting productive firms also in Veneto and in Tuscany. Besides, he declares that the maison produces in Italy because it is one of the few countries where it is mantained a beautiful craftmanship, due to the familiar tradition. He had already told Arnault that Lady Dior bag could be made only in Florence in the ’90s.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Secret Garden Campaign Rihanna
Secret Garden Campaign Rihanna

In 2015, Raf Simons decides to engage pop star Rihanna as testimonial for the “Secret Garden” campaign. It is a big step forward, as in seventy years of the brand history she is the first black woman. Serge Brunschwig, Dior Chief operating officer up till now, achieves the role of Dior Homme division president. In the same year, Dior together with Chanel and Louis Vuitton are in the lead of the ranking made by Brandwatch considering the best and the more influential brands on social media.

Maria Grazia Chiuri

After 3 years, on October 2015, Raf Simons has decided not to renew his contract and to leave Dior for personal reasons. The inside team of the french griffe is asked to design the spring\summer 2016 couture collection and the fall\winter 2016-2017 ready-to-wear collection. Because of the exit of Raf Simons, the revenues show a slight slowdown in the second semester of the exercise, with €961 million in sales.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Maria Grazia Chiuri First Haute Couture Dior Collection
Maria Grazia Chiuri First Haute Couture Dior Collection

In july 2016, Maria Grazia Chiuri became the first female creative director at Dior in its 70 years of history. A woman with a long career in fashion, first for Fendi and then for Valentino, always close to Pierpaolo Piccioli. M.G. Chiuri is the first woman to take the reins of the brand: to date there have been only man like Yves Saint Laurent, Marc Bohan, Gianfranco Ferrè, John Galliano and Raf Simons. The appointment of an Italian woman confirms the renewal of the made in Italy creativity.

In 2016, Dior flies to Melbourne to celebrate seventy years of the maison. The work of the french couturier is the protagonist of a retrospective at the National Gallery of Victoria.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Christian Dior 70th Anniversary Australia
70th Anniversary Exhibition in Melbourne, Australia

Current Situation

On December 31 2016, Safilo and Dior renewed their agreement till 2020 for the design, production and distribution of the eyewear and sunglasses collections. Furthermore, this period is characterized by the exploit of Alessandro Micheli slippers and the T-shirts with revolutionary and feminist slogans by Maria grazia Chiuri.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Feminist Slogan T-Shirts
Feminist Slogan T-Shirts

2017 marks the 70th anniversary for Dior, the French fashion house celebrated its anniversary with exhibition called “Christian Dior: Designer of Dreams”. The exhibition took place in Musée des Arts Décoratifs in paris, where more than 300 breathtaking gowns from across decades were displayed.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Designer of Dreams Exhibition in Paris
Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Designer of Dreams Exhibition in Paris

Also, Baby Dior arrives on Instagram. Dior is one of the few brands to have created an account dedicated exclusively to childrens wear. Also, Natalie Portman has become the testimonial for the Miss Dior fragrance, producing several beautiful floral campaigns. She is invited to the south of France to the harvest the Rose de Grasse, a rare and precious flower at the heart of the Miss Dior fragrance.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Dior Natalie Portman for Miss Dior Fragrance
Natalie Portman for Miss Dior Fragrance

Dior Homme is on the point of entering the Rinascente Duomo, Milano, after the closing up of via Montenapoleone store due to unsatisfactory sales.


The Italian luxury lifestyle brand created by Ada Masotti in Bologna. La Perla began with handmade lingerie pieces and expanded into beach wear, sleepwear, bags, shoes, and ready-to-wear.


  1. The Origin: Handmade Lingerie
  2. Brand Development
  3. Second Generation
  4. Men’s Prêt-à-Porter
  5. 50th Anniversary
  6. La Perla Purchased 
  7. Current Situation

The Origin: Handmade Lingerie

In 1954 Ada Masotti, a corset maker from Bologna, set up a lingerie production company and named it La Perla. Not having elastic fibers available, she focused on tailoring handmade pieces. During this time, female silhouettes were accentuated in fashion and her creations matched latest fashion trends. Ada Masotti’s motto was “never compromise on quality and innovation”.

Mame Fashion Dictionary Ada Masotti Portrait
Ada Masotti Portrait

The brand DNA is based on Leavers lacework (named after an English loom, of which only 1,200 examples remain in the world), Cornelly embroidery, macramé (embroidery on a fabric which is later destroyed), soutache (an ornamental braid applied by hand usually in fancy pattern); the frastaglio (traditional Florentine flat stitch working). La Perla gained exclusive worldwide rights to the production of the extremely elastic Lycra crépe-de-chine.  

Mame Fashion Dictionary La Perla Leavers Lace
Leavers Lace

Brand Development

During the 60s there was a lot of change and rebellion going on around the world. The hippie movement was taking over the fashion world. Ada Masotti realized the changes and adapted the lingerie. So, La Perla launched more colorful creations including multi-colored floral, plaid and checked patterns.

Through the 70s, La Perla introduced more silk, lace and transparent lightness. Including the creation of the silk jersey triangle bra, which allowed more movement. In 1978, La Perla launched its stretch lace sets, mirroring fashion trends with its clinging dresses and natural flowing lines.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: La Perla 1970 Silk Jersey Triangle Bra
1970 Silk Jersey Triangle Bra

Ada Masotti also created La Perla Maison, a collection featuring a range of garments in pure silk satin with embroidered inserts and frastaglio finishing, a technique that to this day is carried out by hand by the artisans of the La Perla atelier.

Mame Fashion Dictionary La Perla Iconic Frastaglio Lace
Iconic Frastaglio Lace

Second Generation

Starting in the 80s, La Perla started its international expansion under the management of  the second generation, Alberto Masotti, who became president. He is responsible for the company’s huge growth, with more than 20 brands, like La Perla, La Perla Studio, La Perla Ritmo, Malizia, Marvel, Occhiverdi, AnnaClub, Oceano, Aquasuit, Joelle, Grigio Perla (man wear), Grigio sport (man wear) and Baby.

Also, Alberto Masotti’s wife, Olga Masotti, was hired by Ada Masotti as a designer. Through the years the Masotti family redefined lingerie as a clothing accessory.

By 2001 La Perla offered a limited range of women’s clothing and was looking to expand. So, in September 2001 the brand débuted their new underwear and beachwear lines at Milano Moda Donna. To achieve its sales targets, the group created a new styling department and allocated investments in marketing and distribution. Shops were opened in Monaco, Moscow, and Chicago.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: La Perla Underwear
La Perla Underwear

Also during 2001 a new Creative Coordinator was entrusted, Sigurd Steinunn, 35, from Iceland who previously worked with Calvin Klein and Tom Ford. Steinunn was supported by six designers and by Anna Masotti who, after graduating from Dams, was made Fashion Coordinator.

By the end of 2001, the company had a consolidated turnover of €235 million, 48% in the Italian market, 52% abroad. The company had 54 own-brand shops, 38 of which were abroad, and the workforce totaled 1,400 people, plus as many in the associated company. Also, the début of the new boutiques in Japan (Fukuoka), US (Costa Mesa, Chicago) and the web boutique,

Men’s Prêt-à-Porter

In April 2002 Grigioperla Touch is the new men’s prêt-à-porter of La Perla, which made its début at Milano Moda Uomo. Then, in September an alliance was created between technology and fashion, and with Nylstar, a giant in technological innovation in the field of fibers and yarns. In addition to product innovation, the distribution network was further expanded through new own-brand shops, in addition to the 15 in Italy and 24 abroad. After the début in Madrid, La Perla also opened in Soho, New York. Later, in December, Alessandro Dell’Acqua, designer from Naples, became the new Creative Director of the prêt-à-porter lines. The year closed with a turnover of €250 million.

Mame Fashion Dictionary La Perla Men's Collection Grigioperla
La Perla Men’s Collection Grigioperla

50th Anniversary

In November 2004 the company celebrated 50 years of business with an exhibition dedicated to the Bologna painter, Elisabetta Sirani (1638-1665). The choice was dictated by the desire to pay tribute to female creativity. Also, for its 50th anniversary, the brand created a limited edition collection made with Valencienne lace, produced on the ancient mechanic looms of Calais, the most important Leavers lace centre in the world.

In 2007 the brand launched the iconic Cage bustier, worn by Victoria Beckham, for the Spice Girl reunion video “Headlines”.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: La Perla Iconic Cage Bustier
Iconic Cage Bustier

In October 2008, Jeff Hansen, already owned 70% of the company, and acquired the remaining 30% from the Masotti family, becoming the unique owner of the brand. The renovation plans include to concentrate production into a single factory, enhance the style and development of the technical-stylistic laboratories, and return to producing the products La Perla is famous for, underwear and beachwear.

La Perla Purchased

2011 was an important year for the brand with a collaboration with designer Jean Paul Gaultier, and the incursion in the shapewear market. Later, in 2013, La Perla was purchased by Italian entrepreneur Silvio Scaglia and Pacific Global Management. Also, during this year the brand launched a Made to Measure service available at the brand’s most important flagships stores.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: La Perla Made-to-Measure Services
Made-to-Measure Services

Through 2014 strategic changes took place, including a new conceptual store design developed with Italian architect Roberto Baiocchi. Also, a new creative turn headed by French art director Fabien Baron.

Mame Fashion Dictionary La Perla Atelier Collection Paris 2015 Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild
La Perla Atelier Collection Paris 2015 at Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild

La Perla showed its first Atelier Collection in Paris 2015, the runway took place at Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild. The pieces were made by hand and its elaboration took about 14 months, after the show the pieces were displayed at the Brands boutique in Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré.

Current Situation

Chairman, Silvio Scaglia and Creative Director, Julia Haart (February 2017)

In 2016 the shoe designer Julia Haart was named Creative Director, and debuted with the Spring/Summer 2017 collection in September 2016 at Milan Fashion week.

Currently, the brand is owned by Pacific Global Management, overseen by Chairman, Silvio Scaglia, and Creative Director Julia Haart. The current muse is Kendall Jenner who appears in all their campaigns. The company continues to live by the founder Ada Masotti’s motto, “Never compromise on quality and innovation”.

Mame Fashion Dictionary: Kendall Jenner La Perla 2017 Campaign
Kendall Jenner La Perla 2017 Campaign