Company of womenswear. It has been operating since 1991 when it was founded to impose quality scheduling on the delivery times of prêt-à-porter. The brand, which produces a second line called Compagnia Italiana, is distributed internationally through own-brand stores, franchises, shops-in-shops, and multibrand shops. The annual turnover in 1998-1999 was over 30 million dollars.
&Quad;2002. Product value totalled €45,768,061, an increase of 4.5%, with a profit of €1,484,637 made outside Italy.
French magazine founded in 1880 with the subtitle “Magazine of elegance,” but which closed in 1967. This periodical was the first to publish an advertising fashion image. During the 1920s the subtitle was changed to: “Magazine of jet set life.” With black-and-white illustrations and colored drawings, the monthly discussed and illustrated the latest fashion trends, followed cultural life in Paris, reported on social events, literature and theater. From the late 1940s, it became the official voice of French haute couture.
Parisian boutique. The creators of this famous boutique are Martine and Armand Halida, who offer typically French brands to their predominantly Arab clientele. The shop, which opened in the Avenue des Champs-Elysées in January 1980, only measured 23.4 square yards but immediately became a reference point for fashion and the first boutique in town to sell Timberland shoes. In 1990 the shop moved to Rue des Rosiers, in the heart of the fashion neighborhood of Marais. They not only sold clothing, but also accessories, design objects, and furniture, and in 2000 opened a space dedicated to menswear. In January 2003 Hadida launched the felt sculptures of the young artist Cyprien Chabert in a new space at the Palais Royal, which he had inaugurated with the erotic drawings of Piero Fornasetti. At present the Hadida family is engaged in new projects which include exhibitions and events linked to gastronomy.
JérÂme (1958). French designer. After working for Balmain, Givenchy, Shimada, and Lapidus, in 1990 he presented his own griffe. In 1992 he designed a make-up line for Shiseido and in 1993-94 he was responsible for the Unanyme line by Georges Rech.
A sophisticated French monthly founded in 1921 in Paris by Max Brunhes, that used the best photographers of the time to present the haute couture collections in its pages. The magazine’s main photographer from 1934 was Philippe Portier: he was the first to take photographs of clothes in the street, historical buildings, castles, or luxury hotels. At the start of the war and the Nazi occupation, the magazine interrupted publication until 1941, when it restarted with the collaboration of the couturier Lucien Lelong. In the 1950s, it added a column dedicated to fabrics and to the trends being followed by the great maisons, from Rodier and Ducharne to Bianchini Férrier, and sections were introduced dedicated to beauty, a horoscope, and news items. Since 1971 the magazine has been edited by a company: l’Officiel de la Couture.
French cosmetic group, the world’s largest. Established in 1907 by the chemist Eugène Schueller, the brand made its début in the hair products sector for professional use. Over the years, the group expanded its activity to cover all market segments (perfumes, treatments, make-up). As a partial result of large acquisitions that foster research and new products, the group today offers a unique combination of over 500 brands, ranging from the highest quality to the mass distribution brands, making a total of 80,000 products and about 200 new articles launched every year. Almost 5% of turnover is allocated to research. In Italy, L’Oréal has four companies: L’Oréal Saipo, Parfums et Beauté, Helena Rubinstein, and Cosmétique Active. The majority shareholder is still the Bettencourt Gesparal family, descendants of the founder.
&Quad;1999. Turnover grew 12%.
&Quad;2000, March. The French giant announced the acquisition of the American group Carson (turnover: 380 million dollars), which specializes in ethnic cosmetics and the African markets, in which it makes 25% of its turnover. The purpose of the acquisition was to give L’Oréal better penetration of these markets.
&Quad;2000. Acquisition of two companies: Scandinavian Respons and 35% of the Japanese Shu Uemura.
&Quad;2001. L’Oréal Italy, the group’s Italian holding, closed 2001 with a turnover of 878.3 million euros, +6.3% on 2000.
&Quad;2002. The balance sheet had a consolidated turnover of 14.3 billion euros, +8.9 millions compared to 2001. The group has more than 48,000 collaborators and sells in 150 countries. These results are greatly due to the sales boom in China (+61%), where the distribution network was strengthened and, above all, a new production plant was under construction. Active since 1908, L’Oréal Italy is the third largest cosmetics company in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. A new production center is to be built in Milan, which will support the long established Turin plant.
&Quad;2005, April. The actress Eva Longoria signed a contract with L’Oréal Paris to become the brand’s new “face”.
&Quad;2005, May. The group announced the acquisition of Texan SkinCeuticals, a company which distributes its cosmetic products to dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and high level spas. The group’s target is to integrate the company into its cosmeceutics division.
Italian men’s fashion magazine founded in 1967 to accompany Vogue Italy, and from the second issue already an independent magazine, first bi-monthly then monthly. Under the direction of Franco Sartori (until 1976), Flavio Lucchini (1976-79), Cristina Brigidini (1979-92), Aldo Premoli (1992-2000), Franca Sozzani and now Anna Dello Russo, the magazine has followed and sponsored men’s prêt-à-porter. At the beginning its approach was in contrast with the traditional elegance of the 1950s-60s, then, during the 1980s, it documented the birth and the ascent of the emerging griffes and later became the speaker of the new need for design and essentiality. The magazine has always employed very important photographers: among others, Ugo Mulas, Oliviero Toscani (who started to work for the magazine very young), Bruce Weber, Carlo Orsi, Norman Parkinson, Horst, Helmut Newton, and Lord Snowdon.