Brand of casual clothing with a strong research component created by Livio Graziottin (1965), a graduate of the School of Art and Industrial Design in Venice. His work is produced by Gruppo Fashion Box (Replay). The brand was born in 1994, at the start of the internet phenomenon. The letter E in the name stands for electronic, as in e-business, e-mail, etc. Over time, the technologic and futuristic inspiration became more nuanced, going from revisited ethnic to retro, with influences from contemporary art and design, in a melting pot characterized by an extremely creative use of technology that was often experimental, on the level of both materials and processes.


Behind this brand are the creative minds of Michèle and Olivier Chatenet, both of them French, work partners and life partners. After founding the Mariot Chalet brand together in the 1980s, they ended their working partnership, with Michèle hired by Comme des Garµons and Olivier by Azzedine Alaïa. Some time later, the two were hired by Hèrmes. In the year 2000, the brand E2 was born, a sparkling assembly of vintage clothing that was soon noticed by people in the trade. It was not an accident that Léonard, the French fashion house established in 1958, hired the couple as top designers. In 2002, their clothes were shown at the Musée de la Mode in Paris as part of the exhibit Couturier Superstars.
&Quad;2003. Lèonard does not renew the contract of the two designers.

Earl Jean

American brand of jeans. It was created in 1996, almost as a game, by the film and television designer Suzanne Costas Freiwald. The clothes are known for being tight-fitting and sexy. The brand really took off in 1997, after the first order placed by Fred Segal, an important department store in Los Angeles. Over the years, the product line has introduced new types of washing and manufacture of the denim fabric. It has also expanded to include knitwear, skirts, and jackets. Since Spring-Summer 2003, the brand has also had a men’s line. It has four boutiques, in Los Angeles, Tokyo, New York, and Osaka, and is also present in the most important department stores of the U.S.


Olivier (1942). French make-up artist. At the age of 20, he made his début as assistant to the celebrated coiffeur Alexandre in Paris. After moving to London, he worked for Vogue and became interested in make-up, soon becoming the favorite make-up artist of many celebrities, including Catherine Deneuve, Mireille Mathieu, Princess Anne of England, and Caroline of Monaco. He did the make-up worn by Michel Serrault in the play La Cage aux Folles. Since 1989 he has been creative director for image and make-up at Givenchy, which became more prominent and up-to-date thanks to him.
&Quad;2000. Olivier leaves Givenchy after 10 years working there.
&Quad;2000, June. He is among the guests invited by the Sorbonne to the conference “Beauty. Anthropology, Semiology, and Market Strategies,” sponsored by the French Confederation of Arts and Trades.
&Quad;Echaudemaison joins Guerlain, the perfume and cosmetics house that belongs to LVMH. In autumn 2002, he presents the Divinora line of cosmetics.


American company making urban clothing and sportswear. It was established in 1993 by Marc Ecko, one of the most important figures in the spread of hip-hop fashion among young people. That fashion came out of Afro-American neighborhoods in New York in the 1970s. At first connected to sports, especially skateboarding, today it is the focal point of a global lifestyle that tries to bring together urban youth and their suburban counterparts. The rapper Eminem has helped arouse international interest in the brand.


The European Clothing Association, with headquarters in Brussels, promotes and defends the interests of the textile and clothing industries within the European Union. It publishes a bulletin, the European Clothing Newsletter, and organizes commercial events abroad.


Umberto (1932). Scholar, writer and essayist. His interests range from medieval aesthetics (he received a degree in philosophy in Turin in 1954, with a thesis on St. Thomas Aquinas), to avant-guard art, including the formulation of a coherent theory of semiotics (he wrote a Treatise on General Semiotics) and the themes and phenomena of mass culture. A professor of semiotics at the University of Bologna, he has since the early 1960s been one of the great interpreters of “low” culture, criticizing any apriori condemnations and intellectual devaluations of it. Starting with his “phenomenological” study of the “typical” Mike Bongiorno, Eco has never scorned any “sign” that appeared within the articulated framework of a cultural system. His approach to fashion, which covers its communicative aspect as well as its aesthetics, from the problem of costume to that of increased communication, is wide-ranging and not narrowly focused. Since his early study of aesthetics, in fact, he has set out to understand art as a concrete, empirical act, something done in a material and technical context. From this perspective, every subject can be analyzed according to its signifier, and every form can be understood as the emanation of a function, and the whirling spiral according to which our time fills forms with meaning and then empties them, rediscovering how to decipher a code and then forgetting it, is nothing more, after all, than a continuous operation of design. An operation, in other words, which considers fashion as an exemplary model.